Thursday, August 27, 2020

Management and leadership essays

The board and authority papers Much has bantered on initiative and the executives throughout the years. Single direction of separating the two terms is to state that pioneers do the correct things and that administrators do things right (Warren Bennis). The board is an uncertain term. Bunches of writing on conventional administration manages arranging, sorting out, organization, checking, control and momentary skyline of the associations. Different literary works identifies with the delicate components like inspiration, motivation, interest, vision and worth creation in long haul points of view. The later, reflects what we frequently allude as to administration (Bass 1994). What separates the two components of the association? Likewise, what are the jobs of the pioneers? Is the argument of this paper? Distinction among Management and Leadership Despite the fact that these two terms can be use reciprocally, they are in truth two totally different characteristics, complete with various characters and practices. By realizing whether one is all the more a pioneer than a chief is, the person in question will pick up understanding and self-assurance that accompanies find out about them. We are going to investigate distinctive character style of directors versus pioneers, the mentality towards the objectives, their fundamental originations of what work involves, their associations with others, and their feeling of self-personality and how it creates. Administrator stresses objectivity and control; they are issue solvers (concentrating on objectives, assets, association structure, or individuals). They frequently pose inquiry, What issues must be unraveled, and what are the most ideal approaches to accomplish results with the goal that individuals will keep on adding to this association? They are constant, extreme disapproved, persevering, astute, explanatory, and open minded and have positive attitude towards others. (WBC). Pioneers are see as splendid, yet some of the time forlorn, accomplish control of themselves before attempting to control others. They can... <!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Comparing the Education System in the United States and Afghanistan Research Paper

Looking at the Education System in the United States and Afghanistan - Research Paper Example Late gauges put the quantity of students at five point 4,000,000 with young ladies involving thirty-five percent (Baker, 2008). Afghanistan presently gloats of an enrolment rate that is considerably higher than before the Taliban bans on mainstream training. Access to instruction is currently given to all Afghanis for nothing out of pocket. The privilege to training is presently cherished in the Afghanistan up to a secondary school level and is for nothing out of pocket. In the US, training is likewise a correct that is revered in the constitution. In spite of the Afghanistan circumstance the United States has consistently had widespread access for everybody of school going age in government funded schools. America training framework is obligatory for all students underneath the age of eighteen. The US proficiency rate remains at 99% with this figure being generally equivalent for the two people (Wadhwa, 2011). The United States simply like Afghanistan utilizes the k12 framework with basic, essential and secondary school being necessary and advanced education being discretionary and secretly supported and controlled. Affirmed self-teaching programs are additionally allowed.Schooling in Afghanistan Since 2001 Since the toppling of the Taliban system in 2001 and the setting up of the Karzai government a great deal of changes have occurred with respect to instruction in Afghanistan. The tutoring framework is, in any case, confronting numerous difficulties as its continued looking for giving training to all Afghanis. The framework is tormented by a convergence of understudies who number roughly 6,000,000 yet there are insufficient instructors to teach.â â

Friday, August 21, 2020

Proven Methodology to Write Your Persuasive Essay Topics For Kids

Proven Methodology to Write Your Persuasive Essay Topics For KidsOnce you have decided what the topic of your persuasive definition essay will be, you need to take the next step in writing your essay. In order to make your persuasive definition essay topics for kids easy to write, you need to break them down into a series of steps that you can follow. Each step is designed to teach your child specific skills in writing their essay and increasing their confidence in writing, something very important in this age group.In the first step, you need to start by developing a strong set of positive associations with the topic you will be discussing. Create associations that will lead your child to ask yourself questions like: 'What does this topic mean to me?' and 'How do I use this topic in my life?'The second step to writing an essay for children is to take each of these associations and move them from words to specific actions that you would take if given the opportunity to do so. This is where many first-time writers go wrong. They try to include more ideas than they can actually think of, but instead leave out pieces. Your goal as you write your persuasive essay topics for kids is to include enough information to inspire your child to take an action based on those ideas.This is where your essay becomes more than a way to make a statement or to test your child's academic skill level; it is a requirement for them to learn these skills before moving onto the next level. To encourage this, you want to include some of your own ideas, but just build from the basics. For example, instead of saying, 'I know how to use the keyword n't,' you might say, 'When I use the keyword I'm not sure how many times, I could use the word not and say I don't know how many times.' This shows the child how they can use the word without using the word too much.Your third step to writing persuasive essay topics for kids is to motivate your child. As your child reads their words and then spea ks out loud, they will need to feel good about what they are doing and why they are doing it.As they read, ask yourself if you want to write the same idea yourself. If you don't want to write that idea, you can always use a pre-written inspirational statement or quote to help your child feel motivated to take the next step. Once your child feels motivated, you can use the next step of writing your persuasive essay. This is to get your child to write the same exact statement as you did; use your own words, but include the wording in a way that you might use it.Once you know how to get your child to speak their ideas through your writing, you will see a marked improvement in the length of time your persuasive essay topics for kids will take. That will leave you more time to connect with your child in other ways. Talk to your child about his or her favorite subject, even if that is a subject he or she doesn't love. Let your child talk to you about things that are important to them and vice versa.Last, you need to make sure that your persuasive essay topics for kids include tips for writing that you can use in your own writing. You don't want to read a fantastic essay and then be like, 'Why did they put that into there? It's not fair!'

Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay on Leadership in Clinical Nursing and Management

Essay on Leadership in Clinical Nursing and Management Leadership is an important aspect of almost any industry. Most people would often think that leadership is only important in industries that are related to business or making profit. It is only logical to think that leadership is important in all aspects of managing an organization because an organization without an effective leader would not be able to survive the harsh business environment that is prevalent in a highly interconnected world economy. There are sources that suggest that leadership is part of a learning process. The objective of this paper is to discuss the importance of leadership and management in the field of nursing, particularly to support the idea that suggests that not all leadership is about changing or challenging people’s vision of the future. The author of this paper will draw on previously published literature on the topic of clinical leadership and management in the field of nursing to support the assumptions and inferences that will be made in this paper. A leader, regardless of the type of organization or the processes and operations that it is involved in, is often described as someone who can easily inspire others to do orders and work together in order to achieve the goals of the company or organization. In this case, we are talking about an organization that is involved in the nursing industry. Examples of goals that a good leader in the nursing leadership can do are the enhancement of the quality of patient and healthcare, accessibility, and affordability, among others. This would of course vary from one organization to another, depending on the focus of the leader, and the current issues and problems that the nursing organization faces. Regardless, an effective clinical management and nursing leader should be able to know how to manage the available funds and financial resources, among others that can be used to fuel a project or any organization-related campaign, in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Th is is where the effectiveness and skills of a leader in the nursing industry would be tested. Naturally, a leader who shows greater promise in meeting the organization’s clients and senior leaders’ expectations, or ideally, in outperforming them, would be considered as more effective compared to one that shows less promising results. A common assumption in organizational management is the one that suggests that leadership is all about changing or challenging a group of people’s vision of the future. This assumption may pertain to the various changes that any leader of an organization would have to spearhead in order for the organization to reach its goals and objectives. This, at some point, may be considered to be true because after all, a company would not be able to grow without introducing significant changes to the way how things are organized from the chain of command down to the way how each small processes and operations are carried out (Stanley, Congruent Leadership: Values in Action, 2008). Often, the greater the changes that have been introduced, the better it would be for the organization in the long run, provided that everything from the planning process down to the part where the planned processes have to be implemented were properly executed. This is not to say, however, that all management -induced organizational changes lead to better results for the organization because there are surely other organizational change management plans that go awry. This is why there are indicators that can be used to access the effectiveness of a leader, regardless of the industry and one of such indicators is his ability to overcome the hindrances to meeting the organizational goals and objectives. The idea of continuous innovation is not only used in the field of technology. It may also be considered important in other fields such as in the field of nursing in this case. Any nursing organization which has failed to continuously innovate either the delivery of its product and services or the quality of its products and services themselves would surely suffer from the negative consequences of being left out by its competitors who have managed to do the opposite — to continuously introduce innovations despite the often high price that organizations have to pay for it. Introducing innovation is not a one-night thing. It is rather a continuous process and most of the time, the leader of the organization plays a major role on whether an organization would be highly innovative or otherwise (Stanley, 2011). Also, the process of introducing innovation is often coupled with the process of introducing changes. Innovation is something that would not be made possible without introd ucing changes. This actually brings us back to the main question about the validity of the idea that suggests that leadership is all about introducing changes and challenging people’s vision of the future. An effective leader would surely be able to find a workaround on how to introduce innovations without having to make dramatic changes or even go to as far as challenge the people’s vision of the future (Howieson Thiagarajah, 2011), unless the aspect of the organization that the leader would like to change is the vision of the organization itself. In a nursing organization, the role of the leader is often geared at improving the quality of healthcare delivered by the entire nursing team or department or if its quality is already at par with the organizational performance, maintaining it (Marquis Huston, 2014). Other goals that the nursing leader may participate may have something to do with increasing the affordability and the accessibility of health and patient care. An effective leader often exhibits a set of personal qualities that would help him surpass the hurdles involved in achieving the goals and objective of the organization, some of which include but may not be limited to persistence, initiative, integrity, courage, and his ability to handle stress. The leader’s ability to think critically, set goals and execute the necessary actions to meet those goals, communicate skillfully with other members of the team, be it a subordinate or someone who has a higher position, and collaborate with other people when it c omes to nursing-related works and responsibilities are often the ones that would determine whether the organization’s vision and mission would be realized or not (Davidson, Becoming a nurse leader, 2010). Nurses are often forced to be creative and innovative in their work. This is because they are the ones who usually have the first-hand experience in interacting with patients. They are often the ones who become compelled to make last minute decisions with regards to patient and healthcare (Marquis Huston, Classical Views of Leadership and Management, 2012; Davidson, Elliott, Daly, 2006). Nurses function as the front liners when it comes to patient care. At times, they often become required to do administrative works such as documenting the patients’ progressions and regressions. The same is, in fact, true for nurse leaders, except for the fact that they have the added responsibility of managing and leading people. Also, their co-nurses look up to their nurse leaders and often, an ineffective and highly inefficient nurse leader creates an equally ineffective and highly inefficient set of new nurse leaders as well. In the end, the purpose of the nursing leader would always ha ve something to do with the ultimate goal of meeting the expectations of the entire department in meeting department and organizational goals and objectives. In conclusion, the role of the nursing leader in a clinical leadership and management in the nursing industry is more concerned with the fundamental goal of effectively and efficiently executing the conceptualized plan of actions in order to reach the set organizational goals and objectives than changing and or challenging the people’s vision of the future. At some point this is true but there is more to being a leader than just introducing changes to the organization and stimulating changes among one’s subordinates. The idea is to see the bigger picture of being a leader and just by doing so, one would be able to determine that being a nursing leader is not just about changing or challenging the people’s vision of the future. In this case, being a nursing leader is more concerned with being a role model to the people, exhibiting the signs of being a leader such as having integrity and excellent communication skills, among other traits of being an effective nurs ing leader. References Davidson, P. (2010). Becoming a nurse leader. Elsevier Australia, 258. Davidson, P., Elliott, D., Daly, J. (2006). Clinical Leadership in Contemporary Clinical Practice: Implications for Nursing in Australia. Journal of Nursing Management, 180. Howieson, B., Thiagarajah, T. (2011). What is Clinical Leadership: A Journal-based meta-review. International Journal of Clinical Leadership, 7-18. Marquis, B., Huston, C. (2012). Classical Views of Leadership and Management. Lippincot Williams and Wilkins. Marquis, B., Huston, C. (2014). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Wolters Kluwer Health. Stanley, D. (2008). Congruent Leadership: Values in Action. Journal of Nursing Management , 519. Stanley, D. (2011). Clinical Leadership: Innovation into Action. Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby - Corruption of the...

Jay Gatsby is a man with a dream and will stop at nothing to attain it. When he loses the love of his life to a wealthy, sophisticated and bigoted socialite, his mind is set. Born a poor farm boy, he centers his life around achieving extraordinarily vast amounts of wealth and great social status. The poor man never gets the girl; in fact, he never gets anything in Gatsbys eyes. Gatsby is determined not only to be rich, but become the richest man who ever lived. When he does become the richest man who ever lived, he wants to become the ultimate ruler of the universe. Gatsby wants to be God. Nick Carraway, his laid-back and observant neighbor, despises Gatsbys flamboyant and exaggerated ways. However, he comes to admire Gatsby†¦show more content†¦He proclaims himself to be Gods-son. Yet this title is not a description of his newfound greatness but merely the fabricated image he attempts to impose upon others. Gatsby is not the suave and sophisticated man he wants to be. He mannerisms are awkward and unnatural. When he speaks of his Oxford education, his words become hurried phrases, or he swallowed it, or choked on it as though it had bothered him... with this doubt his whole statement fell to pieces as if his education wasnt even meant to be. Gatsby is hardly what one would call urbane. Furthermore, Carraway notices that Gatsbys movements seem practiced and calculated. Gatsby is forcing himself to be someone hes not and will pay the consequences. When he is waiting for his first chance encounter with Daisy, he becomes nervous and fidgety. When she finally arrives, he is once upon at his awkward and clumsy best: Luckily the clock took this moment to tilt dangerously at the pressure of his head, whereupon he turned and caught it with trembling fingers and set it back in place. Years of practice did little to help Gatsby be truly liked by people. In one of the more uncomfortable scenes in the novel, Gatsby is waiting to be invited along to supper with the Sloanes. Mr. Sloane and Tom, however, dont want Gatsby to go. Gatsby stands there awkwardly, waiting for his invitation. When finally, he feels sure that hes been invited, he goes inside to get his things. Tell him weShow MoreRelated Destruction and Failure of a Generation in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby1413 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Gatsby and the Destruction of a Generation      Ã‚   The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masks the decay and corruption that lay at the heart of the Roaring Twenties. The society of the Jazz Age, as observed by Fitzgerald, is morally bankrupt, and thus continually plagued by a crisis of character. Jay Gatsby, though he struggles to be a part of this world, remains unalterably an outsider. His life is a grand irony, in that it is a caricature of Twenties-style ostentation: his closetRead MoreSymbolisms in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay846 Words   |  4 Pagesin novels are as memorable as the green light in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Shining at the end of Daisy’s dock, it is close enough to be seen, but too far away to be reached. Still, Gatsby, an eternal optimist, stares at it at night, as if it showed him that all his far-away dreams were about to come true. The green light in The Great Gatsby is symbolic of hope, a source of inspiration, and a representation of the American Dream to Gatsby and to the novel’s readers. Gatsby’s aspirationsRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words   |  3 PagesIn F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. Gatsby’s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of wealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreDestruction of Dreams, Failure of Dreamers in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby1489 Words   |  6 Pages Jay Gatsby, the protagonist of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, is used to contrast a real American dreamer against what had become of American society during the 1920s.   By magnifying the tragic fate of dreamers, conveying that twenties America lacked the substance to fulfill dreams and exposing the shallowness of Jazz-Age Americans, Fitzgerald foreshadows the destruction of his own generation. The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masked the innate corruption within theRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1395 Words   |  6 Pagesthe words of Mr. F. Scott Fitzgerald, â€Å"we are all just humans†¦ drunk on the idea that love, only love, could heal our broken bones.† Fitzgerald was a romantic living in the modernist 1920s, and his classic work The Great Gatsby was certainly a romantic book, and thusly did not succeed in his time; in fact, it did not succeed until after his death in the 1940s. Fitzgerald saw the green light, but it was just as out of reach to him as it was to Mr. Gatsby. Though The Great Gatsby was unappreciatedRead MoreEssay about F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby1480 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Any American is taught a dream that is purged of all truth. The American Dream is shown to the world as a belief that anyone can do anything; when in reality, life is filled with impossible boundaries. In the novel, The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald gives us a glimpse into the life of the upper class during the roaring twenties through the eyes of a moralistic young man named Nick Carraway. It is through the narrators dealings with the upper class thatRead More Great Gatsby: Fitzgeralds Criticism Of The American Dream Essay501 Words   |  3 Pages Great Gatsby: Fitzgeralds Criticism of The American Dream The American Dream, as it arose in the Colonial period and developed in the nineteenth century, was based on the assumption that each person, no matter what his origins, could succeed in life on the sole basis of his or her own skill and effort. The dream was embodied in the ideal of the self-made man, just as it was embodied in Fitzgeralds own family by his grandfather, P. F. McQuillan. Fitzgeralds novel takes its place among other novelsRead MoreThe American Dream, and All Its Splendor (Great Gatsby)854 Words   |  4 PagesThe 1920s were a decade of rebirth characterised by the founding of the American Dream -- the belief that anyone can, and should, achieve material success. The defining writer of the 1920s was F. Scott Fitzgerald whose most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, has become required reading for present-day high school students. We study Fitzgeralds novel for the same reason we study Shakespeare. The literature composed by both authors contains themes and morals that continue to be relevant to modernRead More The American Dream, And All Its Splendor (Great Gatsby) Essay example809 Words   |  4 Pages The 1920s were a decade of rebirth characterised by the founding of the quot;American Dreamquot; -- the belief that anyone can, and should, achieve material success. The defining writer of the 1920s was F. Scott Fitzgerald whose most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, has become required reading for present-day high school students. We study Fitzgeralds novel for the same reason we study Shakespeare. The literature composed by both authors contains themes and morals that continue to be relevantRead MoreEssay on The Great Gatsby Research Report1248 Words   |  5 PagesI. Introduction In 1896 F. Scott Fitzgerald was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. After growing up in Minnesota he moved to start a career and marry Zelda, the girl he loved. He published his first novel, This Side of Paradise, in 1920; the novel was a success and Fitzgerald quickly became one of the most famous young writers of the time. â€Å"F. Scott Fitzgerald eagerly embraced his newly minted celebrity status and embarked on an extravagant lifestyle that earned him a reputation as a playboy and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hard Determinism Essay example - 801 Words

Hard Determinism There are several viewpoints which consider whether we are free when making decisions and taking courses of action. One of these perspectives is hard determinism. J. Mackie described hard determinism as: The view that all actions are explicable in terms of their causes and are therefore inevitable (J. Mackie) This outlines the basic idea that no action or decision is free. This is based upon the notion that for an action to happen there are a series of factors that ensure the occurrence of that action: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦all our choices, decisions, intentions, other mental events, and our actions are no more than effects of other necessitated events (T. Honderich)†¦show more content†¦Other, possibly trivial, aspects such as the weather or having a certain piece of clothing clean would determine the choice made. The philosopher Van Inwagen elaborated upon this initial idea of past events effecting current decisions: My action today is the consequence of a causal circumstance in the remote past before I was born (Van Inwagen) He believed that previous events even prior to birth could effect the decisions made in our life now. Sigmund Freud first suggested the notion of psychological conditioning that would, again, condition our decisions and actions. He separated the human psyche into three parts; the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. The Id is our child hood desires to seek pleasure and avoid pain and demands immediate gratification, the Super-Ego is the ideals we would like to create in society, whilst the Ego moderates the two due to being governed by the reality principle. It is then that our motives and desires emerge subconsciously from the psyche, usually as a result of suppressed feelings which emerge later in life. Carl Jung furthered Freuds theory stating that the choices that we are conscious of making (the individual consciousness) are affected by the individual, cultural and universal subconscious. The individual subconscious is a personal aspect that we areShow MoreRelatedDeterminism, Hard And Soft887 Words   |  4 Pages Determinism: According to Sappington (1990) there are two types of determinism, hard and soft. He states that those who hold hard determinism say that human behavior is completely determined by outside factors and that ideas such a free will or moral responsibility are meaningless. Many famous psychologists take this approach such as Freud who believed that people’s behavior is controlled by unconscious factors and any conscious reasons given are simply the brain rationalizing actions to the superegoRead MoreHard Determinism Vs. Negatives943 Words   |  4 PagesOne of these ideas, hard determinism, has presented alleged positives and alleged negatives. One alleged negative that stands out to me is that no single person is responsible for their actions, no matter how heinous that action may be. I argue, that throwing morality completely out of the equation, is a genuine negative of hard determinism. In order to explain my thoughts, we must first understand the full meaning of hard determinism. In Holbach’s essay on hard determinism, he says, â€Å"NeverthelessRead MoreSaving Morality: The Implications of Hard Determinism 1116 Words   |  5 PagesHard determinism, the acceptance of determinism and the rejection of libertarian free will, results in some serious consequences for moral responsibility. At its most extreme interpretation a form of moral nihilism arises. †Without God ... everything is permitted now.†[1] That is, if determinism holds true, then there is no free choice, and without free choice there can be no moral responsibility. By taking hard determinism to its logical conclusion, and evaluating the results of a steadfast adherenceRead MoreSupport and Contradictions of Hard Determinism and Libertarianism630 Words   |  2 Pagesfutures. The thesis of determinism seems to contradict ordinary experiences, whereas the theory of libertarianism disregards event-causation. Philosopher Walter T. Stace proposed an alternative compatibilist philosophy. In order to recognize the ways in which Stace effectively amalgamates the two thesis utilizing his campatibilist approach, an objective examination of the three ideas is compulsory. The following article will define the support and contradictions of hard determinism and libertarianismRead MoreDefending Hard Determinism Against the Strongest Objections Raised Against It1161 Words   |  5 PagesDefending Hard Determinism Against the Strongest Objections Raised Against It In this academic essay there will be a clear and defined description of both hard determinism and its eventual nemesis indeterminism. Based on these definitions there will be a personal attempt at denying hard determinism. This will be accomplished through the introduction of David Hume and his radical philosophy on causality and the relation this may have on hard determinism, as well as theRead MoreThe Scientific Arguments Which Contain Freedom And Soft And Hard Determinism3111 Words   |  13 Pagesextraordinarily complicated machine.† (Wegner, 2002) To answer the question, it requires we define free will and determinism. This question can be approached from numerous directions: From Libet and Wegner’s scientific data as well as metaphysical results and Dennett’s arguments to those results. This essay will study the scientific arguments which contain freedom and soft/hard determinism. The first section of the essay I will provide definitions of the terms and give data presented by Libet and WegnerRead MoreDefense of Hard Determinism1100 Words   |  5 PagesOF HARD DETERMINISM Hard Determinism argues that every event is causally determined. For an event ‘A’ to occur casually means that there are antecedent causes that ensure the occurrence of ‘A’ in accordance with impersonal, mechanical causal laws. To clarify hard determinism further, let me present hard determinism as an argument. Basically hard determinism argues that: (a) Determinism is true (b) Determinism is incompatible with free will (Holbach, 451). In defense of premise (a), the hard deterministRead MoreDeterminism And Its Effects On Society957 Words   |  4 PagesDeterminism claims that all events are inevitable to have certain results at the end, since conditions are met and nothing else would occur. And it could apply to everything in the universe with causal laws. With the discovering laws, we could make predictions. Over the years, there are more than one determinism been developed over time. Hard determinism claims all the actions of human beings or consequences of events are determined by external conditions, with such conditions satisfied there willRead MoreEssay on Freedom-Determinism debate1689 Words   |  7 PagesFreedom-Determinism Debate The controversy between freewill and determinism has been argued about for years. Freewill is defined as the belief that our behaviour is under our own control and do not act in response to any internal or external factors. Freewill has been found to have four different conditions and to have freewill at least two conditions must be obtained, these are; people have a choice on their actions, have not been coerced by anything or anyone, have full voluntary and deliberateRead MoreFree Will and Libertanianism View1101 Words   |  4 Pagesfree will and I do not accept determinism. Free will is defined as the ability to make decisions at your own discretion. Determinism is defined as the events of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, necessitate every event in the future. What determinism means is that past events and the laws of nature are the factors that dictate what decision will be chosen. The libertarianism view accepts incompatibilism. Incompatibilism states that fr ee will and determinism are incompatible and cannot

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Modern Social Movements and Politics Free Sample

Question: Describe about the Social Movements and Critical Analysis of social movements with the help of the Anti-Apartheid Movement? Answer: Social Movements Introduction The reason behind the protests carried out by people has been the reason for research for the social scientists since a number of years. Le Bon, a French psychologist, who is considered to be the founding father of action studies, had stated that all kinds of protests conducted all over are a certain form of deviant behavior. The psychologist had developed this theory observing the crowds in his country France during 1890. This period is particularly significant since during this time there was huge social unrest in the country (Della Porta and Diani, 1999). The scholar believed that the fundamental basis of the transformation of the thought process of the humans were a result of the destructions carried out in the religious and political beliefs that combined with the new conditions of thought and existence that were created depending on the new scientific and industrial inventions. He further stated that with regard to the social protests and movements there are a number of ideas t hat has evolved from the past which even though are to some extent destroyed still possess a lot of power and there are also ideas which are new but they are yet to be completely formed. The theory of social movement can be considered as an interdisciplinary study included in the study of social sciences that attempts to describe the reasons behind the causes of social mobilization and the various forms of its manifestation and the probable consequences that it has on the cultural or political or social arenas. Social movement can be considered as a sort of a group action. In most of the cases these groups which conduct these movements are huge with a wide variety of individuals participating in them. Sometimes these groups are informal or are formed of organizations instead of individuals and generally all these social movements focus on any specified social or political issue. The study of political science and sociology while conducting research has recognized a number of theories and research in the phenomenon of social movements. For instance, there are some research which focuses on the relationship between the social movements that are gradually gaining grounds and the formations of the political parties. Further there are some that stress on the social movements and their functions with regard to the setting of different agendas and influence on politics (EVA, 2004). The researcher in this study aims to examine a particular social movement and critically analyse the theoretical perspectives of social movements with the support of cases. Modern Social Movements and Politics During the contemporary times it can be observed that there are a number of social movements that has been possible as a result of the increase in the literacy and education of the people all around the world. Further, during the 19th century, there was an increase in the mobility of labor as a result of the increase in the industrialization and urbanization of the societies (Fadaee, 2014). The increase in the extraordinary growth in the number of social movements in the present times is a result of the freedom given to individuals with regard to education, expression and economic independence (EVA, 2004). Nevertheless, many scholars state that there are other reasons for social movements such as the uprisings and protests against the western colonial powers. In most cases it has been observed that social movements have mainly been associated with the democratic and political systems (Tilly, 2004). Sometimes these social movements have also been associated with the issues of democrat izing the nations and are observed that these movements have flourished more after the nations have democratized. In modern times the social movements have flourished with the help of innovative technology and the use of internet as these Medias help to mobilize with the people in the international level. For successful social movements it is essential that these movements adapt to the communication trends. Theoretical Perspectives of social movements There are a number of theoretical approaches in social movement that has been categorized by the scholars under structural or social or constructive models. Structural approaches can be further divided under the category of political process and resource mobilization. Political process is an approach that lays emphasis on the political features of the collective actions. Research mobilization is another approach that stresses on the organization and its aspects and resources. The social and constructive approach is another kind of approach that lays stress on the various questions about how the individuals and the groups observe, reflect and interpret the various conditions and emphasizes on the different roles of cognitive and affective roots of the contentions. This particular approach has been widely classified under the three primary concepts. These are framing, emotions and identity. Sometimes the concept of culture is also included in this category. With regard to the social and psychological approaches to the social movements these are regarded as the key components in this area (Oommen, 2010). According to the social psychologists generally people live in an observed world. This means that they usually respond in accordance to what they observe and how they interpret such observations. In order to understand the reasons for the people to protest, it is necessary to understand the methods in which people observe and interpret the world. Hence it can be construed that social psychology is one medium that focuses more on the subjective variables and therefore this approach is more perfect as compared to the social and constructive approaches. The above discussion has been given in the form of a table for constructive understanding of the study on social movements (Social movement theory: Past, n.d.). While summing up the different theories of social movement, these theories can be categorized into four different types. These theories are collective behavior theory, resource mobilization theory, the new social movements theory and the action-identity theory. The first theory of collective behavior can be identified as the orthodox study on social movements. Most of the scholars who support this approach state that social movements are half-balanced responses for the some abnormal conditions that exist between the primary social institutions (Ruiz-Junco, 2012). These responses tend to break down the entire social system. Scholars explain that this is the mechanism that is resulting in the surfacing of the social movements. The second approach which is the resource mobilization on the contrary describes the reasons for the surfacing of the social movements which would be considered as the reactions that the society gives when social changes take place. This approach gives a positive view of the social movements and considers it to be a medium to re-establish the order in the society according to the fresh changes in the society. However, it must be noted that the causes for the coming up of the social movements can be explained only in a general manner and it actually do not connect with the contents. The new value approach on the other hand does not connect with the class interests and deals more with the values. Before the establishment of the industrial society there were old values and after the establishment of the society there are new values. The social movements of the post industrial societies it can be observed that these social movements are similar to that of the new social movements (Staggenborg, 2011). The final approach which is the action-identity approach is in some way a bit different from the others. This approach focuses on the dissimilarities between the post industrial and the industrial societies. However this does not discard the structure of the class approach. According to this approach, the classes during the post industrial society are quite different from the industrial society but there still exist similarities between the material interests. Case Study: Critical Analysis of social movements with the help of the Anti-Apartheid Movement Throughout centuries there have been a number of social movements around the globe that has focused various revolutions, democratization of nations etc. In this research study the researcher has chosen the social movement on Anti-Apartheid. This Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) was previously known as the Boycott Movement. This movement was initiated by a British Organization and it was this organization that acted as the epicenter for this international movement. The primary objective of this movement was to oppose the system of apartheid that was prevalent in the country of South Africa and to support the non white people existing in the country. This movement was first initiated as a response to an appeal by Albert Luthuli. This movement was later established in the year 1959 during a meeting held for the exiles of South Africans and their supporters. The famous members of this organization were Steve Naidoo, Ros Ainslie, Peter Koinange and Claudia Jones. One of the tragedies that triggered greater response to this movement was the Sharpeville massacre that took place in March 1960. It so happened that around sixty nine protestors were shot dead by the South African police and as a result of this incident there was a requirement for instance action. Later this organization was renamed as the "Anti-Apartheid Movement". After the name was changed the boycott group to a much broader area that would now coordinate all kinds of the work on behalf of anti- apartheid and this kept the apartheid policy in South Africa in the forefront for the British politics. This campaign propagated that apartheid be removed completely from the country of South Africa and any non inconsistency would result in the economic sanctions for them (Fieldhouse, 2005). During this time, one of the largest foreign investor for the country of South Africa was United Kingdom and this country was also the third biggest export market for United Kingdom. Hence it can be observed that primary causes for United Kingdom in entering into the social movement for the Apartheid is also dependent on a number of other related reasons such the economic stability of the countries, the political pressure that was on the countries with regard to this agitation etc. This particular movement was existent for almost thirty five years and during these thirty five years thousands of people in the country of Britain became associated with the Anti-Apartheid Movement campaign until the first democratic elections were held in the country of South Africa in the year 1994. This was one social movement were a number of different methods were incorporated in order to make this movement a success. Campaigns were conducted in order to release the detained people who were detained without any trials. They compelled for the cancellation of the Springbok cricket tour in the year 1970 (Fieldhouse, 2005). Some of the well known British companies sold off their South African subsidiaries and encouraged the social movements. Some of the companies also conducted national boycott for the imported goods of the South African nations and finally they also held concerts in order to demand the release of the Apartheid leader Nelson Mandela. The resource mobilization approach of social movement is reminded with regard to the Anti Apartheid Movement. As most scholars state that in general cases the approach of any social movement is such that it gives a positive approach of the social movement and also attempts to establish the societal order in accordance to the new changes and new advancements of the society. Conclusion As concluding remarks social movements can be considered as expression to protest which flourish in cases where the state is moderate and is also not consistent with the uses of repression. It is the structure for the political opportunities that identify the social movements with ease and consider them to be included. However, it must be noted that none of the social movements are staying forever. Each of these social movements has a limited lifecycle. First they are created, then they gradually grow and slowly they achieve success or fail and finally they stop existing. Also in most cases the social movements tend to evolve only in those time and places where they are likely to get a friendly environment and good support. References Della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (1999).Social movements. Oxford: Blackwell. EVA, F. (2004). Social Movements are Political Movements. What's Geopolitics?.Geopolitics, 9(2), pp.478-483. Fadaee, S. (2014). Understanding European Movements: New Social Movements, Global Justice Struggles, Anti-Austerity Protest.Social Movement Studies, 14(2), pp.251-253. Fieldhouse, R. (2005).Anti-apartheid. London: Merlin. Oommen, T. (2010).Social movements. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ruiz-Junco, N. (2012). Feeling Social Movements: Theoretical Contributions to Social Movement Research on Emotions.Sociology Compass, 7(1), pp.45-54. Social movement theory: Past, p. (n.d.).Social movement theory: Past, present and prospect. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Feb. 2015]. Staggenborg, S. (2011).Social movements. New York: Oxford University Press. Tilly, C. (2004).Social movements, 1768-2004. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.