Monday, May 25, 2020
Essay on Leadership in Clinical Nursing and Management Leadership is an important aspect of almost any industry. Most people would often think that leadership is only important in industries that are related to business or making profit. It is only logical to think that leadership is important in all aspects of managing an organization because an organization without an effective leader would not be able to survive the harsh business environment that is prevalent in a highly interconnected world economy. There are sources that suggest that leadership is part of a learning process. The objective of this paper is to discuss the importance of leadership and management in the field of nursing, particularly to support the idea that suggests that not all leadership is about changing or challenging peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future. The author of this paper will draw on previously published literature on the topic of clinical leadership and management in the field of nursing to support the assumptions and inferences that will be made in this paper. A leader, regardless of the type of organization or the processes and operations that it is involved in, is often described as someone who can easily inspire others to do orders and work together in order to achieve the goals of the company or organization. In this case, we are talking about an organization that is involved in the nursing industry. Examples of goals that a good leader in the nursing leadership can do are the enhancement of the quality of patient and healthcare, accessibility, and affordability, among others. This would of course vary from one organization to another, depending on the focus of the leader, and the current issues and problems that the nursing organization faces. Regardless, an effective clinical management and nursing leader should be able to know how to manage the available funds and financial resources, among others that can be used to fuel a project or any organization-related campaign, in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Th is is where the effectiveness and skills of a leader in the nursing industry would be tested. Naturally, a leader who shows greater promise in meeting the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s clients and senior leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations, or ideally, in outperforming them, would be considered as more effective compared to one that shows less promising results. A common assumption in organizational management is the one that suggests that leadership is all about changing or challenging a group of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future. This assumption may pertain to the various changes that any leader of an organization would have to spearhead in order for the organization to reach its goals and objectives. This, at some point, may be considered to be true because after all, a company would not be able to grow without introducing significant changes to the way how things are organized from the chain of command down to the way how each small processes and operations are carried out (Stanley, Congruent Leadership: Values in Action, 2008). Often, the greater the changes that have been introduced, the better it would be for the organization in the long run, provided that everything from the planning process down to the part where the planned processes have to be implemented were properly executed. This is not to say, however, that all management -induced organizational changes lead to better results for the organization because there are surely other organizational change management plans that go awry. This is why there are indicators that can be used to access the effectiveness of a leader, regardless of the industry and one of such indicators is his ability to overcome the hindrances to meeting the organizational goals and objectives. The idea of continuous innovation is not only used in the field of technology. It may also be considered important in other fields such as in the field of nursing in this case. Any nursing organization which has failed to continuously innovate either the delivery of its product and services or the quality of its products and services themselves would surely suffer from the negative consequences of being left out by its competitors who have managed to do the opposite Ã¢â¬â to continuously introduce innovations despite the often high price that organizations have to pay for it. Introducing innovation is not a one-night thing. It is rather a continuous process and most of the time, the leader of the organization plays a major role on whether an organization would be highly innovative or otherwise (Stanley, 2011). Also, the process of introducing innovation is often coupled with the process of introducing changes. Innovation is something that would not be made possible without introd ucing changes. This actually brings us back to the main question about the validity of the idea that suggests that leadership is all about introducing changes and challenging peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future. An effective leader would surely be able to find a workaround on how to introduce innovations without having to make dramatic changes or even go to as far as challenge the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future (Howieson Thiagarajah, 2011), unless the aspect of the organization that the leader would like to change is the vision of the organization itself. In a nursing organization, the role of the leader is often geared at improving the quality of healthcare delivered by the entire nursing team or department or if its quality is already at par with the organizational performance, maintaining it (Marquis Huston, 2014). Other goals that the nursing leader may participate may have something to do with increasing the affordability and the accessibility of health and patient care. An effective leader often exhibits a set of personal qualities that would help him surpass the hurdles involved in achieving the goals and objective of the organization, some of which include but may not be limited to persistence, initiative, integrity, courage, and his ability to handle stress. The leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to think critically, set goals and execute the necessary actions to meet those goals, communicate skillfully with other members of the team, be it a subordinate or someone who has a higher position, and collaborate with other people when it c omes to nursing-related works and responsibilities are often the ones that would determine whether the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and mission would be realized or not (Davidson, Becoming a nurse leader, 2010). Nurses are often forced to be creative and innovative in their work. This is because they are the ones who usually have the first-hand experience in interacting with patients. They are often the ones who become compelled to make last minute decisions with regards to patient and healthcare (Marquis Huston, Classical Views of Leadership and Management, 2012; Davidson, Elliott, Daly, 2006). Nurses function as the front liners when it comes to patient care. At times, they often become required to do administrative works such as documenting the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ progressions and regressions. The same is, in fact, true for nurse leaders, except for the fact that they have the added responsibility of managing and leading people. Also, their co-nurses look up to their nurse leaders and often, an ineffective and highly inefficient nurse leader creates an equally ineffective and highly inefficient set of new nurse leaders as well. In the end, the purpose of the nursing leader would always ha ve something to do with the ultimate goal of meeting the expectations of the entire department in meeting department and organizational goals and objectives. In conclusion, the role of the nursing leader in a clinical leadership and management in the nursing industry is more concerned with the fundamental goal of effectively and efficiently executing the conceptualized plan of actions in order to reach the set organizational goals and objectives than changing and or challenging the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future. At some point this is true but there is more to being a leader than just introducing changes to the organization and stimulating changes among oneÃ¢â¬â¢s subordinates. The idea is to see the bigger picture of being a leader and just by doing so, one would be able to determine that being a nursing leader is not just about changing or challenging the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the future. In this case, being a nursing leader is more concerned with being a role model to the people, exhibiting the signs of being a leader such as having integrity and excellent communication skills, among other traits of being an effective nurs ing leader. References Davidson, P. (2010). Becoming a nurse leader. Elsevier Australia, 258. Davidson, P., Elliott, D., Daly, J. (2006). Clinical Leadership in Contemporary Clinical Practice: Implications for Nursing in Australia. Journal of Nursing Management, 180. Howieson, B., Thiagarajah, T. (2011). What is Clinical Leadership: A Journal-based meta-review. International Journal of Clinical Leadership, 7-18. Marquis, B., Huston, C. (2012). Classical Views of Leadership and Management. Lippincot Williams and Wilkins. Marquis, B., Huston, C. (2014). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. Wolters Kluwer Health. Stanley, D. (2008). Congruent Leadership: Values in Action. Journal of Nursing Management , 519. Stanley, D. (2011). Clinical Leadership: Innovation into Action. Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Jay Gatsby is a man with a dream and will stop at nothing to attain it. When he loses the love of his life to a wealthy, sophisticated and bigoted socialite, his mind is set. Born a poor farm boy, he centers his life around achieving extraordinarily vast amounts of wealth and great social status. The poor man never gets the girl; in fact, he never gets anything in Gatsbys eyes. Gatsby is determined not only to be rich, but become the richest man who ever lived. When he does become the richest man who ever lived, he wants to become the ultimate ruler of the universe. Gatsby wants to be God. Nick Carraway, his laid-back and observant neighbor, despises Gatsbys flamboyant and exaggerated ways. However, he comes to admire GatsbyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He proclaims himself to be Gods-son. Yet this title is not a description of his newfound greatness but merely the fabricated image he attempts to impose upon others. Gatsby is not the suave and sophisticated man he wants to be. He mannerisms are awkward and unnatural. When he speaks of his Oxford education, his words become hurried phrases, or he swallowed it, or choked on it as though it had bothered him... with this doubt his whole statement fell to pieces as if his education wasnt even meant to be. Gatsby is hardly what one would call urbane. Furthermore, Carraway notices that Gatsbys movements seem practiced and calculated. Gatsby is forcing himself to be someone hes not and will pay the consequences. When he is waiting for his first chance encounter with Daisy, he becomes nervous and fidgety. When she finally arrives, he is once upon at his awkward and clumsy best: Luckily the clock took this moment to tilt dangerously at the pressure of his head, whereupon he turned and caught it with trembling fingers and set it back in place. Years of practice did little to help Gatsby be truly liked by people. In one of the more uncomfortable scenes in the novel, Gatsby is waiting to be invited along to supper with the Sloanes. Mr. Sloane and Tom, however, dont want Gatsby to go. Gatsby stands there awkwardly, waiting for his invitation. When finally, he feels sure that hes been invited, he goes inside to get his things. Tell him weShow MoreRelated Destruction and Failure of a Generation in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Great Gatsby and the Destruction of a Generation Ã Ã Ã The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masks the decay and corruption that lay at the heart of the Roaring Twenties. The society of the Jazz Age, as observed by Fitzgerald, is morally bankrupt, and thus continually plagued by a crisis of character. Jay Gatsby, though he struggles to be a part of this world, remains unalterably an outsider. His life is a grand irony, in that it is a caricature of Twenties-style ostentation: his closetRead MoreSymbolisms in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay846 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin novels are as memorable as the green light in F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby. Shining at the end of DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s dock, it is close enough to be seen, but too far away to be reached. Still, Gatsby, an eternal optimist, stares at it at night, as if it showed him that all his far-away dreams were about to come true. The green light in The Great Gatsby is symbolic of hope, a source of inspiration, and a representation of the American Dream to Gatsby and to the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s readers. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s aspirationsRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Great Gatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of wealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the WestRead MoreDestruction of Dreams, Failure of Dreamers in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s The Great Gatsby1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Jay Gatsby, the protagonist of F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Great Gatsby, is used to contrast a real American dreamer against what had become of American society during the 1920s. Ã By magnifying the tragic fate of dreamers, conveying that twenties America lacked the substance to fulfill dreams and exposing the shallowness of Jazz-Age Americans, Fitzgerald foreshadows the destruction of his own generation. The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masked the innate corruption within theRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe words of Mr. F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ã¢â¬Å"we are all just humansÃ¢â¬ ¦ drunk on the idea that love, only love, could heal our broken bones.Ã¢â¬ Fitzgerald was a romantic living in the modernist 1920s, and his classic work The Great Gatsby was certainly a romantic book, and thusly did not succeed in his time; in fact, it did not succeed until after his death in the 1940s. Fitzgerald saw the green light, but it was just as out of reach to him as it was to Mr. Gatsby. Though The Great Gatsby was unappreciatedRead MoreEssay about F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Any American is taught a dream that is purged of all truth. The American Dream is shown to the world as a belief that anyone can do anything; when in reality, life is filled with impossible boundaries. In the novel, The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald gives us a glimpse into the life of the upper class during the roaring twenties through the eyes of a moralistic young man named Nick Carraway. It is through the narrators dealings with the upper class thatRead More Great Gatsby: Fitzgeralds Criticism Of The American Dream Essay501 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Great Gatsby: Fitzgeralds Criticism of The American Dream The American Dream, as it arose in the Colonial period and developed in the nineteenth century, was based on the assumption that each person, no matter what his origins, could succeed in life on the sole basis of his or her own skill and effort. The dream was embodied in the ideal of the self-made man, just as it was embodied in Fitzgeralds own family by his grandfather, P. F. McQuillan. Fitzgeralds novel takes its place among other novelsRead MoreThe American Dream, and All Its Splendor (Great Gatsby)854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe 1920s were a decade of rebirth characterised by the founding of the American Dream -- the belief that anyone can, and should, achieve material success. The defining writer of the 1920s was F. Scott Fitzgerald whose most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, has become required reading for present-day high school students. We study Fitzgeralds novel for the same reason we study Shakespeare. The literature composed by both authors contains themes and morals that continue to be relevant to modernRead More The American Dream, And All Its Splendor (Great Gatsby) Essay example809 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The 1920s were a decade of rebirth characterised by the founding of the quot;American Dreamquot; -- the belief that anyone can, and should, achieve material success. The defining writer of the 1920s was F. Scott Fitzgerald whose most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, has become required reading for present-day high school students. We study Fitzgeralds novel for the same reason we study Shakespeare. The literature composed by both authors contains themes and morals that continue to be relevantRead MoreEssay on The Great Gatsby Research Report1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI. Introduction In 1896 F. Scott Fitzgerald was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. After growing up in Minnesota he moved to start a career and marry Zelda, the girl he loved. He published his first novel, This Side of Paradise, in 1920; the novel was a success and Fitzgerald quickly became one of the most famous young writers of the time. Ã¢â¬Å"F. Scott Fitzgerald eagerly embraced his newly minted celebrity status and embarked on an extravagant lifestyle that earned him a reputation as a playboy and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Hard Determinism There are several viewpoints which consider whether we are free when making decisions and taking courses of action. One of these perspectives is hard determinism. J. Mackie described hard determinism as: The view that all actions are explicable in terms of their causes and are therefore inevitable (J. Mackie) This outlines the basic idea that no action or decision is free. This is based upon the notion that for an action to happen there are a series of factors that ensure the occurrence of that action: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦all our choices, decisions, intentions, other mental events, and our actions are no more than effects of other necessitated events (T. Honderich)Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Other, possibly trivial, aspects such as the weather or having a certain piece of clothing clean would determine the choice made. The philosopher Van Inwagen elaborated upon this initial idea of past events effecting current decisions: My action today is the consequence of a causal circumstance in the remote past before I was born (Van Inwagen) He believed that previous events even prior to birth could effect the decisions made in our life now. Sigmund Freud first suggested the notion of psychological conditioning that would, again, condition our decisions and actions. He separated the human psyche into three parts; the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. The Id is our child hood desires to seek pleasure and avoid pain and demands immediate gratification, the Super-Ego is the ideals we would like to create in society, whilst the Ego moderates the two due to being governed by the reality principle. It is then that our motives and desires emerge subconsciously from the psyche, usually as a result of suppressed feelings which emerge later in life. Carl Jung furthered Freuds theory stating that the choices that we are conscious of making (the individual consciousness) are affected by the individual, cultural and universal subconscious. The individual subconscious is a personal aspect that we areShow MoreRelatedDeterminism, Hard And Soft887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Determinism: According to Sappington (1990) there are two types of determinism, hard and soft. He states that those who hold hard determinism say that human behavior is completely determined by outside factors and that ideas such a free will or moral responsibility are meaningless. Many famous psychologists take this approach such as Freud who believed that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is controlled by unconscious factors and any conscious reasons given are simply the brain rationalizing actions to the superegoRead MoreHard Determinism Vs. Negatives943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne of these ideas, hard determinism, has presented alleged positives and alleged negatives. One alleged negative that stands out to me is that no single person is responsible for their actions, no matter how heinous that action may be. I argue, that throwing morality completely out of the equation, is a genuine negative of hard determinism. In order to explain my thoughts, we must first understand the full meaning of hard determinism. In HolbachÃ¢â¬â¢s essay on hard determinism, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"NeverthelessRead MoreSaving Morality: The Implications of Hard Determinism 1116 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHard determinism, the acceptance of determinism and the rejection of libertarian free will, results in some serious consequences for moral responsibility. At its most extreme interpretation a form of moral nihilism arises. Ã¢â¬ Without God ... everything is permitted now.Ã¢â¬  That is, if determinism holds true, then there is no free choice, and without free choice there can be no moral responsibility. By taking hard determinism to its logical conclusion, and evaluating the results of a steadfast adherenceRead MoreSupport and Contradictions of Hard Determinism and Libertarianism630 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesfutures. The thesis of determinism seems to contradict ordinary experiences, whereas the theory of libertarianism disregards event-causation. Philosopher Walter T. Stace proposed an alternative compatibilist philosophy. In order to recognize the ways in which Stace effectively amalgamates the two thesis utilizing his campatibilist approach, an objective examination of the three ideas is compulsory. The following article will define the support and contradictions of hard determinism and libertarianismRead MoreDefending Hard Determinism Against the Strongest Objections Raised Against It1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDefending Hard Determinism Against the Strongest Objections Raised Against It In this academic essay there will be a clear and defined description of both hard determinism and its eventual nemesis indeterminism. Based on these definitions there will be a personal attempt at denying hard determinism. This will be accomplished through the introduction of David Hume and his radical philosophy on causality and the relation this may have on hard determinism, as well as theRead MoreThe Scientific Arguments Which Contain Freedom And Soft And Hard Determinism3111 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesextraordinarily complicated machine.Ã¢â¬ (Wegner, 2002) To answer the question, it requires we define free will and determinism. This question can be approached from numerous directions: From Libet and WegnerÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific data as well as metaphysical results and DennettÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments to those results. This essay will study the scientific arguments which contain freedom and soft/hard determinism. The first section of the essay I will provide definitions of the terms and give data presented by Libet and WegnerRead MoreDefense of Hard Determinism1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOF HARD DETERMINISM Hard Determinism argues that every event is causally determined. For an event Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ to occur casually means that there are antecedent causes that ensure the occurrence of Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ in accordance with impersonal, mechanical causal laws. To clarify hard determinism further, let me present hard determinism as an argument. Basically hard determinism argues that: (a) Determinism is true (b) Determinism is incompatible with free will (Holbach, 451). In defense of premise (a), the hard deterministRead MoreDeterminism And Its Effects On Society957 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeterminism claims that all events are inevitable to have certain results at the end, since conditions are met and nothing else would occur. And it could apply to everything in the universe with causal laws. With the discovering laws, we could make predictions. Over the years, there are more than one determinism been developed over time. Hard determinism claims all the actions of human beings or consequences of events are determined by external conditions, with such conditions satisfied there willRead MoreEssay on Freedom-Determinism debate1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFreedom-Determinism Debate The controversy between freewill and determinism has been argued about for years. Freewill is defined as the belief that our behaviour is under our own control and do not act in response to any internal or external factors. Freewill has been found to have four different conditions and to have freewill at least two conditions must be obtained, these are; people have a choice on their actions, have not been coerced by anything or anyone, have full voluntary and deliberateRead MoreFree Will and Libertanianism View1101 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfree will and I do not accept determinism. Free will is defined as the ability to make decisions at your own discretion. Determinism is defined as the events of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, necessitate every event in the future. What determinism means is that past events and the laws of nature are the factors that dictate what decision will be chosen. The libertarianism view accepts incompatibilism. Incompatibilism states that fr ee will and determinism are incompatible and cannot
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Social Movements and Critical Analysis of social movements with the help of the Anti-Apartheid Movement? Answer: Social Movements Introduction The reason behind the protests carried out by people has been the reason for research for the social scientists since a number of years. Le Bon, a French psychologist, who is considered to be the founding father of action studies, had stated that all kinds of protests conducted all over are a certain form of deviant behavior. The psychologist had developed this theory observing the crowds in his country France during 1890. This period is particularly significant since during this time there was huge social unrest in the country (Della Porta and Diani, 1999). The scholar believed that the fundamental basis of the transformation of the thought process of the humans were a result of the destructions carried out in the religious and political beliefs that combined with the new conditions of thought and existence that were created depending on the new scientific and industrial inventions. He further stated that with regard to the social protests and movements there are a number of ideas t hat has evolved from the past which even though are to some extent destroyed still possess a lot of power and there are also ideas which are new but they are yet to be completely formed. The theory of social movement can be considered as an interdisciplinary study included in the study of social sciences that attempts to describe the reasons behind the causes of social mobilization and the various forms of its manifestation and the probable consequences that it has on the cultural or political or social arenas. Social movement can be considered as a sort of a group action. In most of the cases these groups which conduct these movements are huge with a wide variety of individuals participating in them. Sometimes these groups are informal or are formed of organizations instead of individuals and generally all these social movements focus on any specified social or political issue. The study of political science and sociology while conducting research has recognized a number of theories and research in the phenomenon of social movements. For instance, there are some research which focuses on the relationship between the social movements that are gradually gaining grounds and the formations of the political parties. Further there are some that stress on the social movements and their functions with regard to the setting of different agendas and influence on politics (EVA, 2004). The researcher in this study aims to examine a particular social movement and critically analyse the theoretical perspectives of social movements with the support of cases. Modern Social Movements and Politics During the contemporary times it can be observed that there are a number of social movements that has been possible as a result of the increase in the literacy and education of the people all around the world. Further, during the 19th century, there was an increase in the mobility of labor as a result of the increase in the industrialization and urbanization of the societies (Fadaee, 2014). The increase in the extraordinary growth in the number of social movements in the present times is a result of the freedom given to individuals with regard to education, expression and economic independence (EVA, 2004). Nevertheless, many scholars state that there are other reasons for social movements such as the uprisings and protests against the western colonial powers. In most cases it has been observed that social movements have mainly been associated with the democratic and political systems (Tilly, 2004). Sometimes these social movements have also been associated with the issues of democrat izing the nations and are observed that these movements have flourished more after the nations have democratized. In modern times the social movements have flourished with the help of innovative technology and the use of internet as these Medias help to mobilize with the people in the international level. For successful social movements it is essential that these movements adapt to the communication trends. Theoretical Perspectives of social movements There are a number of theoretical approaches in social movement that has been categorized by the scholars under structural or social or constructive models. Structural approaches can be further divided under the category of political process and resource mobilization. Political process is an approach that lays emphasis on the political features of the collective actions. Research mobilization is another approach that stresses on the organization and its aspects and resources. The social and constructive approach is another kind of approach that lays stress on the various questions about how the individuals and the groups observe, reflect and interpret the various conditions and emphasizes on the different roles of cognitive and affective roots of the contentions. This particular approach has been widely classified under the three primary concepts. These are framing, emotions and identity. Sometimes the concept of culture is also included in this category. With regard to the social and psychological approaches to the social movements these are regarded as the key components in this area (Oommen, 2010). According to the social psychologists generally people live in an observed world. This means that they usually respond in accordance to what they observe and how they interpret such observations. In order to understand the reasons for the people to protest, it is necessary to understand the methods in which people observe and interpret the world. Hence it can be construed that social psychology is one medium that focuses more on the subjective variables and therefore this approach is more perfect as compared to the social and constructive approaches. The above discussion has been given in the form of a table for constructive understanding of the study on social movements (Social movement theory: Past, n.d.). While summing up the different theories of social movement, these theories can be categorized into four different types. These theories are collective behavior theory, resource mobilization theory, the new social movements theory and the action-identity theory. The first theory of collective behavior can be identified as the orthodox study on social movements. Most of the scholars who support this approach state that social movements are half-balanced responses for the some abnormal conditions that exist between the primary social institutions (Ruiz-Junco, 2012). These responses tend to break down the entire social system. Scholars explain that this is the mechanism that is resulting in the surfacing of the social movements. The second approach which is the resource mobilization on the contrary describes the reasons for the surfacing of the social movements which would be considered as the reactions that the society gives when social changes take place. This approach gives a positive view of the social movements and considers it to be a medium to re-establish the order in the society according to the fresh changes in the society. However, it must be noted that the causes for the coming up of the social movements can be explained only in a general manner and it actually do not connect with the contents. The new value approach on the other hand does not connect with the class interests and deals more with the values. Before the establishment of the industrial society there were old values and after the establishment of the society there are new values. The social movements of the post industrial societies it can be observed that these social movements are similar to that of the new social movements (Staggenborg, 2011). The final approach which is the action-identity approach is in some way a bit different from the others. This approach focuses on the dissimilarities between the post industrial and the industrial societies. However this does not discard the structure of the class approach. According to this approach, the classes during the post industrial society are quite different from the industrial society but there still exist similarities between the material interests. Case Study: Critical Analysis of social movements with the help of the Anti-Apartheid Movement Throughout centuries there have been a number of social movements around the globe that has focused various revolutions, democratization of nations etc. In this research study the researcher has chosen the social movement on Anti-Apartheid. This Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) was previously known as the Boycott Movement. This movement was initiated by a British Organization and it was this organization that acted as the epicenter for this international movement. The primary objective of this movement was to oppose the system of apartheid that was prevalent in the country of South Africa and to support the non white people existing in the country. This movement was first initiated as a response to an appeal by Albert Luthuli. This movement was later established in the year 1959 during a meeting held for the exiles of South Africans and their supporters. The famous members of this organization were Steve Naidoo, Ros Ainslie, Peter Koinange and Claudia Jones. One of the tragedies that triggered greater response to this movement was the Sharpeville massacre that took place in March 1960. It so happened that around sixty nine protestors were shot dead by the South African police and as a result of this incident there was a requirement for instance action. Later this organization was renamed as the "Anti-Apartheid Movement". After the name was changed the boycott group to a much broader area that would now coordinate all kinds of the work on behalf of anti- apartheid and this kept the apartheid policy in South Africa in the forefront for the British politics. This campaign propagated that apartheid be removed completely from the country of South Africa and any non inconsistency would result in the economic sanctions for them (Fieldhouse, 2005). During this time, one of the largest foreign investor for the country of South Africa was United Kingdom and this country was also the third biggest export market for United Kingdom. Hence it can be observed that primary causes for United Kingdom in entering into the social movement for the Apartheid is also dependent on a number of other related reasons such the economic stability of the countries, the political pressure that was on the countries with regard to this agitation etc. This particular movement was existent for almost thirty five years and during these thirty five years thousands of people in the country of Britain became associated with the Anti-Apartheid Movement campaign until the first democratic elections were held in the country of South Africa in the year 1994. This was one social movement were a number of different methods were incorporated in order to make this movement a success. Campaigns were conducted in order to release the detained people who were detained without any trials. They compelled for the cancellation of the Springbok cricket tour in the year 1970 (Fieldhouse, 2005). Some of the well known British companies sold off their South African subsidiaries and encouraged the social movements. Some of the companies also conducted national boycott for the imported goods of the South African nations and finally they also held concerts in order to demand the release of the Apartheid leader Nelson Mandela. The resource mobilization approach of social movement is reminded with regard to the Anti Apartheid Movement. As most scholars state that in general cases the approach of any social movement is such that it gives a positive approach of the social movement and also attempts to establish the societal order in accordance to the new changes and new advancements of the society. Conclusion As concluding remarks social movements can be considered as expression to protest which flourish in cases where the state is moderate and is also not consistent with the uses of repression. It is the structure for the political opportunities that identify the social movements with ease and consider them to be included. However, it must be noted that none of the social movements are staying forever. Each of these social movements has a limited lifecycle. First they are created, then they gradually grow and slowly they achieve success or fail and finally they stop existing. Also in most cases the social movements tend to evolve only in those time and places where they are likely to get a friendly environment and good support. References Della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (1999).Social movements. Oxford: Blackwell. EVA, F. (2004). Social Movements are Political Movements. What's Geopolitics?.Geopolitics, 9(2), pp.478-483. Fadaee, S. (2014). Understanding European Movements: New Social Movements, Global Justice Struggles, Anti-Austerity Protest.Social Movement Studies, 14(2), pp.251-253. Fieldhouse, R. (2005).Anti-apartheid. London: Merlin. Oommen, T. (2010).Social movements. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ruiz-Junco, N. (2012). Feeling Social Movements: Theoretical Contributions to Social Movement Research on Emotions.Sociology Compass, 7(1), pp.45-54. Social movement theory: Past, p. (n.d.).Social movement theory: Past, present and prospect. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/988496/Social_movement_theory_Past_present_and_prospect [Accessed 24 Feb. 2015]. Staggenborg, S. (2011).Social movements. New York: Oxford University Press. Tilly, C. (2004).Social movements, 1768-2004. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
In the current college admissions world, students have the opportunity to apply to as many or as few schools as theyÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in. But with the cost of higher education increasing every year that passes, families are turning to financial aid for help. In her article in the Washington Post, author and mother Tracy Mayor brings up this exact problem: college is expensive. Too expensive. And in some cases, prohibitively so. Her son went through the college application process, receiving acceptances and rejections from various schools, but had been waiting on his dream. Luckily, he received a large envelope in the mail - the international college admissions symbol for Ã¢â¬Å"congratulations and welcome!Ã¢â¬ . But all wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t well and good. There was no mention of financial aid or scholarship at all. An email to the admissions office was met with a quick response: Ã¢â¬Å"If there was no mention of a merit scholarship in his acceptance letter, then heÃ¢â¬â¢s not getting one.Ã¢â¬ Almost immediately, his $64,000 dream school returned to its origin Ã¢â¬â a dream. The MayorÃ¢â¬â¢s story begs the question: should students even apply to schools out of financial reach? As many families applying to colleges and universities experience, gambling between need-based financial aid and earning merit-based aid is risky. Need-based aid is based on income, but even the two-income, middle class families that donÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify canÃ¢â¬â¢t always pay the full price for higher education. Merit-based aid, on the other hand, is up to the schools, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no guarantee that any student will receive money. And while almost two thirds of students pay for college with the help of financial aid, that money still may not be enough to make a difference. So, as you traverse the college admissions process, how should you approach choosing schools to apply to? Ã¢â¬Å"The goal is to find colleges that fit the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic and social needs, as well as the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial budget,Ã¢â¬ says Paula Bishop, a financial aid advisor. As was the case for Tracy Mayor and her son, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to find the financial middle ground. These days, a college acceptance is only worthwhile if you can afford to accept the college, too.
Monday, March 9, 2020
the cat came back the very next day Question #2Sarah Masudi7143354Religion 209Myths are more than just creation stories, they are used to remind us how things used to be before our time. They also explain traditional values and different beliefs among different cultures, they shape who we are and our role in society. They cannot be denied because they are found in all countries.Myths allows us to ask questions and address the cause of the problematic, by addressing it we get one step closer to the ideal world, how the world would be if the problematic didn't exist. It makes us question things; such as how we are living today may affect us tomorrow. We try to find a way to diminish the problematic and get out of that situation, myths let us know what needs to be done to achieve the ideal. They have different contexts depending on the myth and where it origins, and how its interpreted by the individual."The pain of the profane world affects both individuals and communities, whether Christian, Hopi or Muslim" (F.Streng, p g.13).Humans realize how powerful myths can be to their lives and how they impact their daily decision. Such as when following a certain religion those who follow the rules and guidelines to diminish the problematic and to be one step closer to the ideal world. "The individual who discovers the ultimate reality through sacred symbols holds the conviction that, without the special powers that comes from myths and rituals, a person is sinful, weak and self destructive" (F.Streng,pg.25).People follow these certain guidelines through religion or certain beliefs that are set out for them because they don't want to live in a profound world. Therefore they go to the ultimate reality to find these answers. Humans are religious because they lack a...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Pathophysiology and pharmacology - Assignment Example Impairment of these mechanisms results in pneumonia. It may also occur when the resistance of the host is lowered. Congestive Heart Failure arises when the heart is unable to circulate enough blood to meet the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolic demands. Heart failure is caused by damage or overloading of the myocardium (Hosenpud & Greenberg, 1994). It is, therefore, associated with systolic or diastolic overloading and with myocardial weakness. Various conditions cause heart failure. Such conditions include hypertension, myocardial infarction, and amyloidosis. Overtime physiologic stress on the myocardium causes the contractility of the muscle to reduce and cardiac output declines. However, venous input to the ventricle remains constant or increases and is responsible for cardiac overload. There is also increased heart rate, hypertrophy and enlargement of the ventricles. Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease that infects one-third of the world population. It is often fatal killing about three million people yearly. It usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted by inhalation of infective droplets and Mycobacterium bovis transmitted by milk from infected cows. The primary phase of M. tuberculosis infection starts with inhalation in the lower segment and middle lobes of the lung (DYER, 2010). Alveolar macrophages then phagocytize the mycobacterium and transported it to hilar lymph nodes. However, naÃ ¯ve macrophages are unable to kill the Mycobacterium that lyses the cell upon multiplication. Other macrophages are infected, and dissemination through the blood to other parts of the body occurs. The active disease years later, Reactivation TB, results from the proliferation of dormant Mycobacterium seeded during the primary phase. Peptic ulcer disease is the breach of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal layer. There are two forms of PUD;
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The Cut Flower Cluster in Kenya - Essay Example These include the overall economic performance and its subsequent effects upon the local and the international consumers. Similarly, there is the aspect of macro performance that entails several things. For instance, in terms of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP), cut flower has been very influential. It contributes about 8% in terms of total export revenues. On the other hand, there is the contribution of productivity has been high accompanied by profitability margins. This has been facilitated by the inadequate competitiveness that guides the innovation and productivity of cut flower in Kenya (Zeng 2008, p. 153). In other words, there has been tremendous improvement on the transaction costs that work towards the boosting of productivity and overall efficiency. The productivity has also been able to received sustenance from the export growth that has not decreased making productivity a fundamental choice of macro performance. However, there has also been the effect of the cut flower grown in Kenya in the context of inflation in the outlook of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. For example, transporters of the cut flower have experienced the instances of high inflation costs especially with the fall of the dollar in the local and global market. This is because it affects the prices of the local production that is paramount in the boosting the average productivity. Alternatively, there is also the revenue generated from exports that are also affected by the high inflation of the new dollar economy. Therefore, it may be added that the fall of inflation has also helped in the cut of about 14% of the cut flower prices in the global market (Webber & Labaster 2010, p.66). This suggests that one-third of total supplies are current being sold in Europe to accrue export revenues and an increase in productivity. Cut flower also has an adverse effect on the currency of the nation in the context of the effects on the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Criticism And Drawbacks Of The Kuznets Curve Economics Essay Environmental Kuznets Curve The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a pragmatically, relationship that is assumed to trace the pollution path followed by countries as their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) grows and describes the relationship between per capita income and of environmental degradation indicators (Unruth and Moomaw, 1998). In the infant stages of development, the levels of some pollutants climb with increases in per capita income, while at advanced levels of development, environmental degradation follows a downward trend as income per capita is moving upwards. These results give rise to a bell shaped curve relating economic growth to environmental degradation, redolent of the relationship hypothesized by Kuznets (1995) between economic and income inequality (Nahman and Antrobus, 2005). The concept of EKC came out in the early 1990s with Grossman and Kruegers (1991) path-breaking study of the potential impacts of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). Origins of the EKC The environmental Kuznets curve is a hypothesized relationship between different indicators of environmental degradation and income per capita. At first stages of economic growth degradation and pollution increase, but further than some level of income per capita, the movement reverses, so that at high-income levels economic growth leads to environmental improvement. This means that the impact of environmental indicator is an inverted U-shaped function of income per capita (Stern, 2003) In other words, the distribution of income becomes more asymmetrical in early stage of income growth and then the distribution moves towards greater equality as economic growth continues (Kuznets, 1955). This liaison between income per capita and income inequality can be represented by a bell-shaped curve. This is viewed as an empirical phenomenon known as the Kuznets Curve (Dinda, 2004). Criticism and drawbacks of the Kuznets Curve The Kuznets Curve has helped in studying the relationship between environmental pollutants and GDP of countries but it does have drawbacks too. Even Kuznets (1955) himself indicated that the Kuznets Curve Theory is not a perfect one and the relationship between income inequality and economic development cannot be assumed. He also declared that lot information in the paper has been speculated and thus further research work must be carried out. The reason behind the development of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Since the last decades, the increasing threat of global warming and climate change has been of major continuing concern. Organisations such as the United Nations have been trying to diminish the unfavorable impacts of global warming through intergovernmental and binding accords. After immense negotiations, the agreement namely the Kyoto protocol was signed in 1997. This protocol has the objective of reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) that cause climate change. The Kyoto protocol recognises limitations to environmental pollutants and necessitates a timetable for realisation of the emission reductions for the developed countries. During 2008 2012 periods the demands reduction of the GHG emissions to 5.2 % lower than the 1990 level. In 2005 it came into force: 178 states have signed and approved the protocol since April 2008 (Halicoglu, 2008). Greenhouse gas emissions particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, are considered to be the core causes of global warming. Consequently, to prev ent global warming a number of countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to diminish their emission levels. Galeotti and Lanza (1999) indicated that some developing states refused to sign the Kyoto Protocol based on the argument that the industrialisation and development process should be subject to no constraints, particularly for energy production and consumption. One probable foundation for this position is the belief that while pollution increases with growth in GDP, it happens a point where pollution goes down. This view calls for a careful analysis of the relationship between economic growth and pollution. This relationship is obviously very complex as it depends on numerous different factors such as: The countrys size, The sectoral structure, including the composition of the demand for energy, The vintage of the technology, The demand for environmental quality, The level and quality of environmental protection expenditures. Shafik (1994) reports that the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality has been a source of great disagreement for a lengthy period of time. On one side it has been observed that greater economic activity unavoidably leads to environmental degradation and finally to possible economic and ecological collapse. At the other side is the view that those environmental nuisances worth solving will be tackled more or less automatically as a consequence of economic growth. Previous to 1970, there was a conviction that the raw materials consumptions, energy and natural resources were growing at the same pace as economy grows. In the early 1970s, the Club of Romes Limits of Growth view (Meadows et al., 1972) was brazen about the concern for the accessibility of natural resource of the Earth. They argued that the finiteness of ecological resources would prevent economic growth and advocated for a solid state economy with zero growth to avoid striking ecological circumstances in the future. This view has been criticised on both hypothetical and empirical grounds. Experimental works shows that the ratio of consumption of some metals to income was falling in developed countries during the 1970s, which brings divergence with the predictions set out in the Limits to Growth view (Maleness, 1978). Natural environment not only provide natural resources important for economic development but also execute the vital function of supporting life, if man persist to exp loit environment recklessly, then it would not be able to sustain life any longer. Environmental Kuznets Curve definition and graphical illustration The EKC follows the name of Nobel Laureate Simon Kuznets who had remarkably hypothesized an inverted U income-inequality relationship (Kuznets, 1955). In the 1990s economists detected this relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation. Since then this relationship is known as Environmental Kuznets Curve. According to the EKC theory as a country develops, the pollution increases, but after reaching a specific level of economic progress pollution begin to decrease. The EKC hypothesis suggests that environmental degradation is something unavoidable at the first stage of economic growth, so a developing country is forced to tolerate this degradation in order to develop. In a graphical representation the x-axis symbolize the economic growth which is measured by GDP per capita and the y-axis represents the environmental degradation which is measured by many different pollution indicators such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, deforestation etc. The shapes of the Environmental Kuznets Curves. The relation between income and environmental pressure can be sketched in a several ways; firstly one can distinguish monotonic and non-monotonic curves. Monotonic curves may show either mounting pollution with rising incomes, as in the case of municipal waste per capita or decreasing. But, non-monotonic patterns may be more probable in other cases and two types have been recommended, namely inverted-U and N-shaped curves. The pattern discovered in experiential research depend on the types of pollutants scrutinised and the models that have been used for inference. Four speculative opinions are presented in favour of an inverted-U curve for (local) air pollutants, which can be listed as: Positive income elasticitys for environmental quality, Structural changes in production and consumption, Rising information on environmental consequences of economic activities as income rises and More international trade and more open political systems with increasing levels of income (Selden and Song 1994). Others, for example Pezzey (1989) and Opschoor (1990), have argued that such inverted-U relationships may not hold in the long run. They anticipated a so-called N-shaped curve which demonstrates the same pattern as the inverted-U curve initially, but beyond a certain income level the relationship between environmental pressure and income is positive again. Delinking is thus considered a temporary phenomenon. Opschoor (1990), for example, argues that once technological efficiency enhancements in resource use or abatement opportunities have been exhausted or have become too expensive, further income growth will result in net environmental degradation. Despite these considerations empirical evidence so far has been largely in favour of the inverted-U instead of the N shaped relationship (de Bruyn et al., 1998). The shortcomings of EKC analysis A number of critical studies of the EKC literature have been published (e.g. Coodoon, 2003; Ekins, 2000; Fare et al.,2001; Perman, 2003; Stern et al., 1996; Stern, 2004). Theoretical critique This section discusses the criticisms that were raised against the EKC on theoretical (rather than methodological) grounds. One of the main criticisms of the EKC models is the assumption that environment and growth are not interrelated. In simple words the EKC hypothesis assumes no feedback between income and the pollution of environment. Fare et al., (2001) refer that due to the non-availability of actual data on environmental quality is the major restriction of all EKC studies. Environmental quality is something that is not measured accurately. Therefore, a guide of environmental quality, which could be a better measurement, should be developed and used to examine the EKC hypothesis. According to Ekins (2000), consideration in assessing the strength of the estimation is the reliability of the data used. However, there is little sign that the data problems are serious enough to shed doubt on the basic environment-income link for any particular environmental indicator, but the results in fact imply that this might be the case. Stern (2004) draws his attention to the mean median problem. He underlines that early EKC studies showed that a number of indicators: 2 SO emissions, x NO, and deforestation, peak at income levels around the current world mean per capita income. A hasty glimpse at the available econometric estimates might have lead one to believe that, given likely future levels of mean income per capita, environmental degradation should turn down from the present onward. Income is not yet, normally distributed but very skewed, with much larger numbers of people below mean income per capita than above it. Hence, this shows a median rather than mean income that is the relevant variable. Another problem related with the EKC studies is the little attention that has been paid to the statistical components of time series analysis. Very few studies in the past investigated the presence of unit root in time series of variables used to investigate the validity of the EKC. 2) Econometric critique Stern (2004) in a survey argues that the econometric criticisms of the EKC fall into four main categories: heteroscedasticity, simultaneity, omitted variables bias, and cointegration issues. Perman and Stern (2003) investigate the data and models for unit roots and cointegration respectively. Panel unit root tests designate that all three series log sulfur emissions per capita, log GDP capita, and its square have stochastic trends. Results for cointegration are less definite. About half the individual country EKC regressions cointegrate but many of these have limitations with incorrect signs. Some panel cointegration tests point out cointegration in all countries and some accept the non-cointegration hypothesis. However, even when cointegration is found, the form of the EKC relationship varies radically across countries with many countries having U-shaped EKCs. In case theres a common cointegrating vector in all countries it will be strongly rejected. Coondoo and Dinda (2002) carried out an analysis for Granger Causality between CO2 emissions and income in various individual countries and regions. In general model that emerges is that causality runs from income to emissions or that there is no significant relationship in developing countries, while in developed countries causality runs from emissions to income. Still, in every case the relationship is positive so that there is no EKC type effect. Data and Time Series Properties To study the relationship between the GDP of Mauritius and the C02 emission in Mauritius the annual data that are being used are; total C02 emission from 1976 to 2008, the real GDP from 1976 to 2008, the population of Mauritius from 1976 to 2008, inflation rate of Mauritius and the unemployment rate of Mauritius. Source: Energy Data Book(2010) Figure 1: Per Capital CO2 Emission Estimate for Mauritius From these sets of data it can be clearly seen that while population was increasing (Figure 2), during these years the real GDP (Figure 3) has been fluctuating a bit. In mid 1970s after the independence there has been a lot of development and transformation in our country. Our economy was diversified and more jobs were created. Furthermore we received more foreign aid. By the late 1970s our economy deteriorated a bit mainly due to the increase in petroleum price in the world market and this lead to less government subsidies and devaluation of our Mauritian Rupees. Then by late 1980s the economy experience steady growth and also a high level of employment, declining inflation and more domestic savings. This period was also marked by the boom in the sugar industry. Though the development slowed down in the 1990s there was a gradual development of the local financial institutions and at the same time our domestic information telecommunication industry boomed. By the start of the 21st ce ntury there our financial services sector became a very important pillar of the economy with an increasing number of offshore enterprises. Finally our economy developed a lot due to the seafood processing and export during the last 10 years. Figure 2: Population Estimates for Mauritius Figure 3: GDP for Mauritius (without inflation) In the short term real GDP is affected by inflation (Figure 4) because the latter causes a rise in general price of goods and services and consequently this causes a change in investments, savings, consumption and import and export of a country and thus the GDP of a country is affected too. [The equation used to calculate real GDP is; GDP = private consumption+ gross investment + government spending + (exports imports)] Source: Federal Bank of Cleveland (2010) Figure 4: Inflation in Mauritius GDP is also depended on unemployment rate (Figure 5) because according to this equation GDP =Ã compensation of employeesÃ +Ã gross operating surplusÃ +Ã gross mixed incomeÃ + taxes less subsidies on production and imports. Thus if unemployment rate increases in a country, the GDP will decrease. Source: Index mundi (2010) Figure 5: Unemployment Rate in Mauritius While trying to prove the relationship between GDP of Mauritius and the C02 emission of Mauritius, we can also observe how the GDP also affects the C02 emission in each specific sector of Mauritius. Graph 6 shows how the Energy sector and the Transport sector are the main contributors to C02 emission from 2000 to 2006. Source: CSO Mauritius(2010) Figure 6: C02 emission per sector
Monday, January 20, 2020
There is major concern about patient safety. It has been caused in part by obvious failures in which many patients have been harmed. This concern seems to be escalating worldwide. The medical culture that weÃ¢â¬â¢re in today seems to rely on secrecy, professional protection, defensiveness, and respect to authority. Theses ideologies are central to these failures, and preventing future failures depends on cultural as much as structural change in health care systems and organizations. Swiss Cheese Model James T. Reason developed the Swiss cheese model. The model is used in risk evaluations and risk management to determine accident causation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an accident causation model used in aviation, engineering and healthcare. It represents the human systems used and equates them to Swiss cheese slices put side by side. Sometimes it is referred to as the cumulative act effect. The structure of the Swiss cheese model applies to most risky fields, but I will discuss how it applies to healthcare. The developer theorized that most accidents could be traced back to more than one failure. These failures include organizational influence, supervision, preconditions and specific acts. Some examples of preconditions include fatigued workers, or communication errors. Unsafe supervision can be explained as putting inexperienced nurses in an Oncology unit to administer chemotherapy. Organizational influences can be perceived as performing understaffed when the consequences are known. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s guard against most failures, in the Swiss cheese model, are presented as a chain of walls, symbolized by the slices of cheese. The wholes that are in the cheese represent the weaknesses in individual parts of the healthcare system, and are constantly wavering i... ...ime or another, but if you can decrease that amount from what you normally see it could benefit your organizations reputation. Health care executives are able to better understand why keeping patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ safe from harm protects market share, reimbursement levels, organizational reputation, and accreditation status (Carroll, 2009). Today, in almost every health care system, safety has become a top priority. Through patient safety efforts the risk management professionals can help to place trust back into the health care system. Reference Carroll, R. (2009). Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations. San Fransisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass. Walshe, K., & Shortell, M. S. (2004, May). When Things Go Wrong: How Health Care Organizationa Deal With Failures. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from Health Affairs: content.healthaffairs.org/content/23/3/103.full Theories of Accident Causation Essay -- There is major concern about patient safety. It has been caused in part by obvious failures in which many patients have been harmed. This concern seems to be escalating worldwide. The medical culture that weÃ¢â¬â¢re in today seems to rely on secrecy, professional protection, defensiveness, and respect to authority. Theses ideologies are central to these failures, and preventing future failures depends on cultural as much as structural change in health care systems and organizations. Swiss Cheese Model James T. Reason developed the Swiss cheese model. The model is used in risk evaluations and risk management to determine accident causation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an accident causation model used in aviation, engineering and healthcare. It represents the human systems used and equates them to Swiss cheese slices put side by side. Sometimes it is referred to as the cumulative act effect. The structure of the Swiss cheese model applies to most risky fields, but I will discuss how it applies to healthcare. The developer theorized that most accidents could be traced back to more than one failure. These failures include organizational influence, supervision, preconditions and specific acts. Some examples of preconditions include fatigued workers, or communication errors. Unsafe supervision can be explained as putting inexperienced nurses in an Oncology unit to administer chemotherapy. Organizational influences can be perceived as performing understaffed when the consequences are known. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s guard against most failures, in the Swiss cheese model, are presented as a chain of walls, symbolized by the slices of cheese. The wholes that are in the cheese represent the weaknesses in individual parts of the healthcare system, and are constantly wavering i... ...ime or another, but if you can decrease that amount from what you normally see it could benefit your organizations reputation. Health care executives are able to better understand why keeping patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ safe from harm protects market share, reimbursement levels, organizational reputation, and accreditation status (Carroll, 2009). Today, in almost every health care system, safety has become a top priority. Through patient safety efforts the risk management professionals can help to place trust back into the health care system. Reference Carroll, R. (2009). Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations. San Fransisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass. Walshe, K., & Shortell, M. S. (2004, May). When Things Go Wrong: How Health Care Organizationa Deal With Failures. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from Health Affairs: content.healthaffairs.org/content/23/3/103.full
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Import and export of goods play a vital role in all the economy. That too, India is a developing country, the role of export and import are of greater emphasis. There must be a free flow of exports and imports in order to improve the economy. But, the free flow should not affect the economy. So, the control over import and export of goods become the need of the hour.Regulation mandated by a state attempts to produce outcome which might not otherwise occur, produce or prevent outcomes in different places to what might otherwise occur, or produce or prevent outcomes in ifferent timescales than would otherwise occur. In this way, regulations can be seen as implementations artifacts of policy statements. The economics of imposing or removing regulations relating to markets is analyzed in regulatory economics. [Development of economic legislation is of comparatively recent origin.Reserve Bank of India was established in 1935 to exercise control over banking and fiscal activities. Need to control economic activities through legislation arose during the Second World War to face shortages. Price and distribution controls were established on arious essential commodities under the Defense of India Act, 1939 (later converted into Essential Supplies (Temporary Powers) Act of 1946 and Essential commodities Act in 1955). Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947 was passed to control the difficult position of foreign exchange. Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 provided for industrial licensing and registration.MRTP Act was passed in 1969 to exercise control over monopolies, unfair trade practices and restrictive trade practices. Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 was passed as a solution to growing sickness in industries. Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 was passed to establish a statutory body (SEBI) to exercise control over rapidly growing capital market. Earlier, capital issues (control) Act, 1947 was used to exercise cont rol over capital issues. This Act was scrapped after the formation of SEBI. As international business is growing, importance of controls over foreign transactions is growing.The main purpose of economic legislation is to support the economic policies of the Government. b. to exercise control over economic activities. to protect consumers from unscrupulous persons. d. To prevent bad side effects of the development. India decided to follow Russian model of Ã¢â¬Ëcontrolled economy and Ã¢â¬Ëleading role to public sector'. Various Acts were passed atter 1947 to suppo t rt nese ideals. T envisaged various controls, licensing etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Some Acts like Essential Commodities Act. FERA was designed to support Ã¢â¬Ëshortage economy, where supply was less compared to demand. These economic policies were totally changed in July 1991.It is ironical that through the policies have changrd, the old Acts still continue. Though some amendments to FERA, MRTP Act etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ have been made, the bas ic philosophy of these Acts (i. e) controls and licensing continues. Luckily, the Acts provided so much flexibility in framing policies that these old Acts provided so much flexibility in framing policies that these old Acts designed for different purposes and with entirely different concepts can be in fact are being used to implement new policies. Indeed the new policies are against basic philosophy of the old economic legislation.The country which is purchasing the goods is known as the importing country and the country which is selling the goods known as exporting country. The traders involved in such transaction are importers and exporters respectively. In India, exports and imports are regulated by Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992, which replaced the Imports and Exports (control) Act, 1947, and gave the Government of India enormous powers to control it. Besides the FTDR Act, there are some other laws which control the export and import of goods. These includ e :- a. -rea Act, 1953 b.Coffee Act, 1942 The Rubber Act, 1947 The Marine Products Export Development Authority Act, 1972 e. The Enemy Property Act, 1968 The Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963. g. The tobacco Board Act, 197513] IMPORT RESTRICTIONS Control over the import ot the goods in to India is exercised by the Import Trade Control Oragnisation, which functions under the ministry of commerce. This rganisation is supervised by the director General of foreign trade station at New Delhi, who is assisted by Additional and Joint director general and by other licensing authorities at various centers.Current import policy is embodied in the export and import policy book out by the DGFT. CUSTOMS ACT, 1962 Section 12(1) of the customs Act is the charging section which provides for imposition of a duty called Customs duty levied as per the customs Tariff act 1975, or any other law for the time being in force on the goods imported in to India or exported out of India. The ob jects of Customs Act are i) To regulate imports and exports. To protect domestic industries from dumping. iii) revenue in the form of customs duty and indirect tax. iv) legislations such as FTDR and FEMA.To collect To assist allied By virtue of the power conferred under Secl 56 of the Customs Act 1962 Central Govt is empowered to make rules consistent with the provisions of the Act. Similarly by virtue of its powers conferred under Sec157 of the Act , the Central Board of Excise and Customs(CBEC) has been empowered to frame regulations( Customs House Agent Regulations) EXPORT & IMPORT PROHIBITIONS Secl 1 of the Customs Act 1962 gives powers to central government to prohibit import or export of goods . Such a prohibition can be absolute or conditional.Absolute prohibition means an importer is totally prohibited in importing/exporting the subject goods. Some of the goods prohibited from time to time are narcotic drugs, explosives, live or dead animals [birds, arms and ammunition, coun terfeit currency notes. On the other hand, conditional prohibition would mean that the prohibition would mean that the prohibition would mean that the prohibition is subject to certain conditions imposed. A conditional prohibition would attract in a case where the importer is prohibited in selling/trading the imported goods but can only use the ame as a raw material for manufacture.Some item like wool, turmeric, onion, black pepper, tea, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ are allowed to be exported only after they are graded by designated authorities. In terms of Sec. ll (2) of the Customs Act, 1962, the prohibition may among other things relate to the following: i) Maintenance of security of India. Prevention of smuggling Conservation of foreign exchange and safeguarding balance of payments. Prevention of serious injury to domestic production of goods. v) Protection of national treasures. Maintenance of public order and standards of decency and morality. vii)Protection of IPR (Patent/Trademark/Copyright) viii) Any other matter conducive to the interest of general public. Sec. 2 (33) of the act defines prohibited goods means any goods the import or export of which is subject to any prohibition under this act or any other law for time being in force but doesn't include any such goods in respect of which the conditions subject to which the goods are permitted to be imported or exported, have been complied with. Therefore, the prohibition under Customs Act applies to prohibition under any other law in India. ) Ancient Monument Prevention Act prohibits/ restricts antiquities e imported or exported without licence. b) Arms and ammunition cannot c) Wildlife Act prohibits certain exports- Ã¢â¬Ëred sandal wood Ã¢â¬Ë(which are used in Middle East countries for making musical instruments) d) Environment Protection Act prohibits export of some items. At the time of import of goods the customs authorities will first check whether the items imported is prohibited / restricted or subject to co nditional import, before allowing clearance of the goods.Similarly at the time export also the goods are given Ã¢â¬Ëlet export order' only after they are checked with the reference to restrictions/ rohibitions. If such goods are attempted to be smuggled the goods are liable to seizure/confiscation and the offender liable to penal action including arrest / prosecution under the Customs Act. The word Ã¢â¬Ëconfiscation' implies appropriation consequential to seizure. The essence and concept of the confiscation is that after confiscation the property of the confiscated goods vest with the central govt.Secl 1 1 of the Act provides for confiscation of improperly imported goods. The goods brought from a place outside India shall be liable for confiscation. Sec. 111 (d) says Ã¢â¬Å"any goods hich are imported or attempted to be imported or are brought within the Indian Customs waters for the purpose of being imported, contrary to any prohibition imposed by or under this act or any other law for the time being in force. Secl 13 of the Act deals with confiscation of goods attempted to be improperly exported .The export goods shall be liable for confiscation under sec 113 (d) says Ã¢â¬Å"any goods attempted to be exported or brought within the limits of any customs area for the purpose of being exported contrary to any prohibition imposed by or under this Act or any other law for time being in force. COFEPOSA, 1974 Conservation of Foreign Exchange and prevention of smuggling Activities Act (COFEPOSA) was passed in 1974 when foreign exchange position in India was bleak and smuggling was beyond control.In view of recent liberalisation, the Act has lost its significance. The Act gives wide powers to executive to detain a person on mere Suspicion of smuggling (the draconian provisions of the act can be compared with provisions of TADA, where a person can be incarnated in Jail merely for possessing a illegal weapon and having acquaintances with some underworld elements, w ithout any proof of direct involvement in terrorist activities). The acts like COFEPOSA, TADA, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ are criticized on the ground that they violate basic human rights.Freedom of a man can be taken away under such Acts, without Judicial scrutiny and safeguards. The act has been given special protection by including the same in the 9th schedule to constitution. The validity of COFEPOSA particularly section 5A and SAFEMA smugglers and foreign Exchange Manipulators (forfeiture of property) Act 1976, have been upheld in Attorney General of India Vs. Amaratlal PraJivandas. A 9 member bench SC order. Thus, individual civil liberties can be curtailed for national security and in national interest.Under provisions of the act, a Government officer, not below the rank of Joint Secretary in case of central Government and Secretary in case of State Government, who is specifically authorized by central or state government for that purpose, is authorised to order detention of a person (inc luding a foreigner) with a view to prevent him from acting in any manner prejudicial to conservation or augmentation of foreign exchange, or to prevent him from smuggling or abetting smuggling of goods, or transporting, keeping conceling or dealing in smuggling goods or harbouring persons engaged in smuggling ot goods. section. ). where an order ot detention is made by state government officer, it should be reported to central government within 10 days. (Section. 3 (2)). When detention is ordered by central government, central govt. is appropriate government. When detention is ordered by state government, that govt. is appropriate government. The significance of this definition is that the Ã¢â¬ËAppropriate government' has to make a reference to advisory board formed for the purpose of COFEPOSA and take action as per decision of advisory board.Appropriate government also has powers to revoke a detention, release a person temporarily, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ SAFEMA, 1976 Another act relevant to COEPOSA is SAFEMA Ã¢â¬â smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of property) Act, 1976. The act applies to persons convicted under customs Act, FERA and to those detained under COFEPOSA. The purpose of the act is to forfeit the illegally acquired properties of the smugglers and foreign exchange manipulators. Property can be forfeited merely on the ground that he is detained under COFEPOSA.However, in case of customs and FERA, property can be forfeited only if a person is convicted under these Acts. An appellate tribunal has also been formed for this purpose. COFEPOSA is dreaded Act similar to TADA. It permits detention of a person even without a charge. Since the powers are extraordinary, generally courts are strict about the conditions prescribed in respect of detention. FOREIGN TRADE (DEVELOPMENT AND REGULATION) ACT, 1992. The FTDR Act is designed to develop and regulate foreign trade by facilitating imports in to India, and augmenting exports from India, and fo r matters connected therewith.The salient features of the Act are as follows; 0 It has empowered the Central Government to make provisions for development and regulation of foreign trade by acilitating imports into, and augmenting exports from India and for all matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. 0 The Central Government can prohibit, restrict and regulate exports and imports, in all or specified cases as well as subject them to exemptions. 0 It authorizes the Central Government to formulate and announce an Export and Import (EXIM) Policy and also amend the same from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette. It provides for the appointment of a Director General of Foreign Trade by the Central Government for the purpose of the Act. He shall advise Central Government in formulating export and import policy and implementing the policy. 01Jnder the Act, every importer and exporter must obtain a Ã¢â¬ËImporter Exporter Code Number' (Ã¢â¬ËEC) from Director G eneral of Foreign Trade or from the officer so authorised. The Director General or any other officer so authorised can suspend or cancel a licence issued for export or import of goods in accordance with the Act.But he does it after giving the licence holder a reasonable opportunity of being heard. PENALTY Export or import in violation of provisions of the act, rules or policy is an offence. Penalty up to five times the value of goods can be imposed. The contravening goods and conveyance carrying the goods are liable to confiscation. The goods and conveyances confiscated can be released by paying redemption charges equal to market value of such goods or conveyance.Conveyance will not be confiscated if it is owner proves that the conveyance was used without his knowledge or ne took reasonable precautions against its misuse. Penalty and confiscation can be ordered by Ã¢â¬ËAdjudicatory authority. APPEAL Appeal against the order of DGFT for refusing of suspending or cancelling code umb er or licence or imposing penalty can be filed within 45 days with prescribed authority. Appeal can be filed only on payment of penalty imposed, unless appellate authority dispense with such pre deposit (Section. 5 of FTDR). Central Government can call and examine any records and pass revision orders in some cases (section. 16 of the act). SETTLEMENT A person can opt for settlement by admitting contravention in the following Contravention was without willful mistake or without any circumstances. a. collusion, fraud or without intention to cause loss of foreign exchange. b. Person mporting has not misutilised the imported goods, but condition of Ã¢â¬ËActual user' or Ã¢â¬ËExport obligation' have not been satisfied.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Key Functional Areas Human resource management role is to plan, administer, and develop programs and policies that are designed to make efficient use of human resources of an organization. HRM is concerned with the people that are employee and their relationship within an organization. Objectives of HRM are utilization of human resources effectively, maximum development of individual and establishing desirable working relationships among all workers. Human resource management concept indicates that employees are employer resources. Decisions like whom to employ, what type of training is offer, what to pay, and how to assess employee performance that directly affects ability and incentive of employees to provide goods and service thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In analysis and design of Job examines specific functions of job in defining the skills, knowledge and duties that are required for each position and also getting complete jobs information. With this information, organization carries out the emp loyees recruiting and hiring function. In Recruitment organizations try to find candidates for potential employment. And then in the process of Selection HR attempts to categorize candidates with the required abilities, knowledge, skills, and other capabilities that will help the organization reach their goal. Next important function is training and development that gives employees the knowledge and skills to effectively perform their work and providing training for inexperienced and new workers. For example organization decisions regarding training and other HR practices are designed for providing special customer service. Compensation and benefits are functional area associated with HRM. The Compensation is the pays and bonuses paid to the worker for the work that they perform. For example, if a worker has practice and needs little training his wages will probably be more than wages for employee who must be qualified and trained. On the other hand Benefits are also a kind of compensation that is available to the personnel in form of Medical and dental insurance, travel allowance, paid vacation and leaves. Employee relation refers to communication with workers who are member of trade union. This area