Wednesday, November 27, 2019

person perception essays

person perception essays Progression of interpreting perception amongst ourselves and others relates to physical traits (looks/attractiveness) and non-physical traits (intelligence/information). Leaning solely on physical traits creates a biased person perception stereotyping view, which leads to assume the subject being assessed also have high non-physical traits. Such implication need to be avoided, as it suggests that, though attraction is correlated to non-physical traits, knowing or being familiar with a person can greatly reduce the stereotyping and ultimately lead to the influence of non-physical traits to interpret on perceptions. The apprentice study gives a pre-task where group members work together. This gives members more information about each other and we see how it correlates between non-physical traits to being picked as the apprentice. When viewing someone for the first time we use our sense of perception to have a general idea of a stranger. It is understood that this is influenced by physical traits such as looks and youth shown by (Kniffin Implications occur, as biased views are perceived about a stranger. It leads to hypothesis that there would be a correlation between the variables of physical and non-physical attraction. Such studies by Dion and associates (1972) confirms that subjects indeed favour such non-physical traits when given photographs to judge that was rated high in physical attractiveness. This type of behaviour is called the halo effect. The assumption is generally known as the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype. Researchers such as Eagly et al (1991) suggest as information and clarity increases about the stranger, there become more familiar and know that p...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Free Essays on Ivanhoe

IVANHOE TEACHES US A LESSON IN CHIVALRY In everybody’s life, there is something that makes him or her strive for success. That something can be money, a significant other, fame or many other incentives. To the medieval knights, victory renown and glory are the ambitions they strive for. Breaking a law in this code would be considered a disgrace, and would bring a dishonor worse than death itself. However, by applying the Code of Chivalry, the knights in medieval time displayed certain character traits that would secure success and honor in both battle and morality. In the book Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott, a knight named Wilfred of Ivanhoe illustrates this by devoting his attention to keeping the rules of the Code of Chivalry, which consisted of love of adventure, integrity and loyalty to the king, to name just a few. These character traits of Ivanhoe coupled with strong characters and a realistic setting allow the reader to understand the importance of a strong set of moral guidelines to all individuals of all times in spite of Sir Scott’s excessive detail and confusing subplot. Respect and loyalty are two of the character traits that Ivanhoe not only possesses but also helps the reader to see their importance for a successful life. For example, in the very beginning of the book Ivanhoe is known as the Disinherited Knight because his father, Cedric the Saxon, disinherits him; however, even though he is abandoned, he still respects his father and is loyal to him. His respect is shown in the book when the castle burns and someone asks his father whether defeat is visible. Cedric responds by saying, â€Å"Not so, by the soul of Hereward.† He then denounces his Ivanhoe’s beliefs. Instead of getting angry with Cedric, Ivanhoe shows respect, brushes the comments off, and leads a successful life as a result. This is a very good example to today’s reader that comes from generations of children having relationship prob... Free Essays on Ivanhoe Free Essays on Ivanhoe IVANHOE TEACHES US A LESSON IN CHIVALRY In everybody’s life, there is something that makes him or her strive for success. That something can be money, a significant other, fame or many other incentives. To the medieval knights, victory renown and glory are the ambitions they strive for. Breaking a law in this code would be considered a disgrace, and would bring a dishonor worse than death itself. However, by applying the Code of Chivalry, the knights in medieval time displayed certain character traits that would secure success and honor in both battle and morality. In the book Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott, a knight named Wilfred of Ivanhoe illustrates this by devoting his attention to keeping the rules of the Code of Chivalry, which consisted of love of adventure, integrity and loyalty to the king, to name just a few. These character traits of Ivanhoe coupled with strong characters and a realistic setting allow the reader to understand the importance of a strong set of moral guidelines to all individuals of all times in spite of Sir Scott’s excessive detail and confusing subplot. Respect and loyalty are two of the character traits that Ivanhoe not only possesses but also helps the reader to see their importance for a successful life. For example, in the very beginning of the book Ivanhoe is known as the Disinherited Knight because his father, Cedric the Saxon, disinherits him; however, even though he is abandoned, he still respects his father and is loyal to him. His respect is shown in the book when the castle burns and someone asks his father whether defeat is visible. Cedric responds by saying, â€Å"Not so, by the soul of Hereward.† He then denounces his Ivanhoe’s beliefs. Instead of getting angry with Cedric, Ivanhoe shows respect, brushes the comments off, and leads a successful life as a result. This is a very good example to today’s reader that comes from generations of children having relationship prob...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Allstate Insurance Company Social Responsibility Essay

Allstate Insurance Company Social Responsibility - Essay Example In general, the company and all its managerial including all its employees, families, and agency owners are enthusiastically involved in enhancing and bettering the living state of communities across the country. Allstate insurance’s main concern is to protect the people and be at the forefront in helping to put the people’s lives back together. In many cases, the Allstate Company runs cleanup campaigns, lends a hand to the needs of established youth groups in the country, aids in raising funds for various needy organizations, seeks to create links with other organizations, and creates awareness for valuable issues of all kinds. In the recent past for instance, the company committed itself to build yet another playground in the city of Chicago, raised funds for the Museum of Science and Industry exhibits, funded the Chicago Children’s Museum, and supported a reading program in the city. Further, Allstate Insurance is committed to sponsor other organizations where such as the Goodman Theatre, the Mexican Museum, and the Chicago Urban League among a host of other responsibilities. In pursuit to achieve its priorities of serving the community in the most and efficient way possible, Allstate Insurance Company has developed a credible criterion of investing in communities. This involves three well established and enforced ways: I. Financial Resources – this has been the key drive for Allstate Insurance Company. It involves being useful and depended on by other organization and groups. It structures itself in a way that other organization and small group can look unto the company whenever need arises. The company raises funds generously to the organizations and groups that are truly in need. It does this in the form of grants emanating from â€Å"The Allstate Foundation†, donations, and contributions from various corporate. II. Time – Allstate Insurance has put into consideration the value of time and has implemented a way of utilizing every single minute in the most effective and efficient way. They achieve this by ensuring that all employees participate actively in all activities undertaken in the company. It also makes sure that all its officers and agency owners are actively involved in all community programs, nonprofit boards, and community event such as creating relevant awareness. III. Leadership – Allstate Insurance Company has taken a step further to enhance its leadership. In doing this, the company commits itself to create a mutual relationship with other organization and joining them to address critical issues affecting the communities they serve. By so doing, the company remains up to date of even issues that could otherwise go unnoticed in the community. This also involves funding and providing support where necessary to enhance the activities. Further, Allstate has divided the communities into three groups just to enhance timely and effective operations: i. Local communities â€⠀œ this is where the company’s clients and agency owners reside and work. Moreover, agency owners and the clients invest their time and funds in the local communities as they are well protected and offer certainty. ii. Chicago Metro Area – this is due to the fact that Chicago is the hometown of Allstate Company and therefore access is almost perfect and management is enhanced. iii. National –

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

What does this book reveal about the American religious experience Essay - 2

What does this book reveal about the American religious experience - Essay Example The first story of the novel largely mimes the story of the Monkey King. It would not be an exaggeration to point out that the author deliberately chose this figure since in the original text the Monkey King also was a victim of ethnic discrimination. Indeed, being a monkey for no particular reason he was refused to join the gathering of other deities. Later he is explained that his entrance was denied because he is a monkey and no match to deities. No matter how absurd it may see, but in the fairytales there is also a hierarchy of the spices which may not be properly justified, just like in a real life society. Another interesting point that should be noted is the rejection from the group of gods actually served as an important impulse for the Monkey King to explore his abilities and live his life to its fullest. One might suggest that just like him, those people who were not able to incorporate in the society because of racial prejudices end up to be much more developed individuals than they could have been if they did not turn their attention to their identity. Quite ironically, throughout the story the Monkey King is the person who develops the most accurate understanding of his identity as well the state of affair in the society, featuring the perception of the world which is not distorted by any biases – something that the majority of the population both in the book or in the real life is not able to boast. The next story, the implications of which should be explored in order to prove the thesis deals with life of Jin Wang. Thus, it is quite important since it presents a rather peculiar description of the most hostile environment for the people of a different race that one can image: the white suburb of a town. It is quite obvious that the author deliberately made his Chinese character to move them in order

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Victorian society Essay Example for Free

Victorian society Essay Dickens concentrates on using emotive language throughout this chapter. He does this to encourage the reader to empathise and sympathise with Oliver. For example, wretched. little companions in misery. the only friends he had ever known. And also reckless with misery these quotations emphasise just how wretched and awful Olivers childhood must have been. Throughout this chapter, Dickens challenges the charitable organisations run by the church and government. The people who ran these institutions believed that poverty is the consequence of laziness and that the dreadful conditions in which they were forced to live would inspire them to better themselves. Through this novel, Dickens tries to get across that that is not true and that poor people are real people, with real feeling and real aspirations to better themselves. Dickens concentrates on criticising Mrs. Mann, Mr. Bumble and the Board members to emphasise exactly how cruel, neglectful and hypocritical they are. He is showing Oliver to be half-starved and exploited, yet still pure at heart, to get across the point that poor people arent born with the will to be criminals, but the environments, and adverse situations, are what cause criminal behaviour. He is continually criticising these characters because he has very strong views about the neglect and exploitation of children in the society of the Victorian period. The second extract which I am going to explore, with reference to the question, is Chapter Four, entitled Chapter IV. Oliver, being offered another place, makes his first entry into public life. This chapter tells us of how Oliver is dispatched to Mr. Sowerberry, the undertaker, and how he is greeted there. The arrangements made to dispose of Oliver were that, if a tradesman, approved by the Board, was to request Oliver as an apprentice, then he should receive the boy and a sum of five pounds. At the onset of the chapter, when the Board are discussing whether or not to send Oliver to sea or not, they make a very interesting conclusion -The probability being, that the skipper would flog him to death, in a playful mood or would knock his brains out with an iron bar; both pastimes being as is pretty generally known, very favourite and common recreations among gentlemen of that class. This shows us their ignorance and misunderstanding of human nature. Also, it reveals how unfeeling and malicious those gentlemen are, because they decide that sending Oliver to sea would be a very advantageous way of providing for Oliver effectually. However, when Mr.Bumble brings Mr. Sowerberry in front of the Board, Olivers fate was changed. He was to be dispatched to Mr. Sowerberrys upon liking. This means that if the boys master can get enough work out of him without giving him too much food, then he shall have the boy for a term of years to do what he likes with. That evening Oliver was taken before the Board and informed of his fate. He was also told that if he complained or was sent back to the parish, then he was to be sent to sea, there to be drowned, or knocked on the head. This is a cruel way to threaten a young boy and just goes to show how malicious and heartless these characters are. Dickens is continuing to develop a feeling of detestation towards the Board and he criticises its members relentlessly throughout this section of the chapter. He clearly displays his dislike of this aspect of Victorian society, which allows such acts of cruelty to go unchecked Dickenss character descriptions are renowned for their effectiveness and accuracy. In this chapter, he describes Mrs. Sowerberry as a short, thin squeezed up woman with a vixenish countenance. This gives the impression of slyness and unpleasantness, which is further enforced by her pettish behaviour and also by her telling Oliver You dont mind sleeping among the coffins, I suppose you cant sleep anywhere else. It is well known that children have very active imaginations; so sleeping among coffins wouldnt inspire many pleasant thoughts into a childs mind. Yet Mrs. Sowerberry show no understanding of this and just leaves Oliver alone in a room full of coffins. This highlights the fact that the Victorians had no concept or knowledge of child development and psychology. For instance, there was no awareness of adolescence. They thought that people changed directly from children to adults. There was no understanding of the teenage years, so people were either treated as children or as adults, never teenagers. A small, quite discreet bit of Dickensian irony in this chapter is the matter of the parochial seal. It is Mr. Bumble who sheds light upon this matter. He say . the parochial seal the Good Samaritan healing the sick and bruised man. The irony meant here is very clear. Oliver symbolises the sick and bruised man yet the parish did nothing for him but make his situation worse. They didnt do anything to heal him after his traumatic childhood at the hands of Mrs. Mann. If anything they treated him even more appallingly. Dickenss use of emotive language in this chapter is for much the same purpose as in the last chapter. He aims to create an even greater feeling of sympathy towards Oliver. Quotations such as with tears of real agony and Oliver piteous and helpless look increase the readers sympathetic feeling towards him. In this extract I think Dickens was concentrating on making the reader see how badly Oliver is neglected and mistreated by adults. He also uses this chapter to further criticise the behaviour of the Board members and also the behaviour of Mrs. Sowerberry. Dickens is again demonstrating how he detests the ways in which the adults inflict cruelty and neglect upon their young charges, and are allowed to get away with it because of the state of society at that time. Charles Dickens was only twenty-four years old when he wrote Oliver Twist. Yet in it, he effectively and comprehensively criticises Victorian society for its hypocrisy and the way in which it allowed poverty-stricken children, like Oliver, to be the victims of adult cruelty, neglect and exploitation. To do this, he uses his skilful character descriptions throughout the novel. For example, in Chapter Two, the Board members are described as the fat gentlemen and Oliver and his companions are described as suffering the slow tortures of slow starvation. This is implicitly emphasises to show the greed of the gentlemen, to the point where they have twice as much food as they need and their workers have less than half of what they need. He also uses ironic authorial comments throughout the novel, which are an effective way of emphasising his own views on Victorian society. Examples of this can be found throughout the book and Dickens has made his views perfectly clear to his readers. Another way in which he criticises Victorian society is in his direct, open criticisms of the unpleasant ways in which the adult characters treat Oliver. In Chapter Two, Oliver is asked if he said his prayers every night -like a Christian. And Dickens says, at length, that it would have been marvellously good if he had done so but he hadnt, because nobody had taught him. Other more discreet techniques of communicating his criticisms can be found throughout the novel. Firstly, the titles of the chapters display ironic tendencies. For example, Chapter two is entitled Treats of Oliver Twists growth, education and board. Yet from reading the chapter, anyone can tell that his childhood was far from a treat, unless being locked in a cupboard on your ninth birthday for being hungry could be considered a treat. Thus it can be assumed that Dickens was being ironic when naming the chapter.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Nonnative Invasive Plants - The Invasion of America by the Yellow Starthistle :: Horticulture Ecology Environment

Nonnative Invasive Plants - The Invasion of America by the Yellow Starthistle Introduction Our planet is made up of seven continents and seven oceans holding hundreds of thousands of environments and ecosystems, each with unique variations, compositions, and distinctions, and each carefully balanced in the functions of its different members. Over time, equilibria have been reached, as the organisms that populate areas stabilized, intermingled, and interacted with weather, soil, water availability, and other innumerable environmental factors. This is not to say that such environments are stagnant, for they are far from it. In order to remain healthy and profitable, however, change must happen slowly in an ecosystem, so that all members of the ecological community can adapt and survive. Radical change results in dangerous instability and threatens the livability of the system for the animals, plants, and even humans who depend upon it. As systems are vastly different and extremely delicate, species that are successful, profitable and enhance the livability in one area are sometimes entirely inapplicable and in fact dangerous in another. It is for this reason that we find ourselves confronted, in recent history, with a relatively new problem: nonnative species invasion. As human populations have begun to engage in widespread travel, exchanges, and modification attempts worldwide, they have also--both knowingly and unknowingly--introduced, transported, and intermingled species between ecosystems in a manner that is neither gradual nor delicate. Imbalances and frailties have ensued in the very ecosystems upon which we depend for our survival, health, and economic success. New animals, plants, bacteria, and organisms of all shapes and sizes and from every kingdom are being introduced to once stable environments on a regular basis through human carelessness and ignorance. Once introduced, they often negatively affect their newfound homes, taking over with unexpected force and threatening the native organisms. Many are well known, like Kudzu, an oriental plant initially introduced for erosion control, which now covers millions of acres in the Southern United States, or the tiny Zebra Mussel, originally found in Poland, which now blocks water supply and treatment systems nationwide. Invasive species are not a distant threat which will make their effects felt twenty or thirty years from now. They compose a current problem having major impacts on life and industry everywhere, and the magnitude of this problem continues to grow.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Lord of the flies by William Golding Themes Essay

Ralph says, â€Å"Why do things break up as they do?†. Explain why things went wrong on the island, and say what this tells us about human nature in general. Aspects of media throughout the world contain true meanings, in some cases general but in others unambiguous and very strong. These meanings are often shown clearly through books, sculpture, music and other consumable media. It is important for these meanings in connection with human nature to be shown through these means to represent the ‘real’ and ‘true’ things that relate to us as humans, also these meanings offer strong links between things showing that happenings in a microcosm relate to humans and show some similarities. The artists who create the media are often well known and respected for there clever but unadorned creations the public domain look for these links and usually publicise successful ones. The question posed gives students an opportunity to reflect there opinions and thoughts regarding the novel Lord of the flies. The question is open and allows for a range of answers, there is no specific model answer, however the response to the question should be focused directly on why things break up, showing links from the island to the rest of the happenings in the world, the response to the question needs time, as the answer could become too long and most importantly missing the point of the essay, there is a need for a balanced view and this should reflect in several points being raised within the answer. Golding is renowned for his imaginative and meaningful novels, all created to show strong links with Human nature in a specific scenario in comparison to Human nature in general, from this there is usually a message which is true and probably undertakes in an every day situation. From the beginning of Lord of the Flies there are signs of misjudgement and disrespect, as the novel continues these implications become much stronger consequently leading to an up rise in rivalry and jealousy, the first meaningful misjudgement in my opinion begins with the fact of the beast, jack says, â€Å"A snake-thing. Ever so big. He saw it.†, this shows exaggeration and misjudgement, in comparison to Ralph who says, â€Å"There isn’t a beast†, showing consideration for the little uns’ and offering reassurance. From the early encounters and ideas of the beast up to the very latter stages of life on the Island fear and horror loomed with uncertainty being the main feeling, this feeling of fear is one of the first signs of a break up, the little uns separate and change into scared and unsettled beings, the respect from the big uns was required and from the outset simply wasn’t. Ralph however along with a minority offered reassurance, this shows respect throughout the novel and this reflects his personality and character, this difference also adds to the reasons for the break up of Ralph’s society. The fire appears the next apparent reason, Ralph as chief says, â€Å"A fire, make a fire!†, from the outset this appears a good idea with the main purpose of signal being for rescue, a clever but original method of attraction used first by the Indians, this shows that Ralph can produce ideas which could have excellent purposeful results, however the fire is also a signal of misjudgement, with no true thought and planning going into the idea leaving devastating outcomes, the alleged opposition saw this as a weakness although they weren’t respectful themselves offering comments in the nature of, â€Å"he was only a little un anyway†, this whole compilation of disrespect and misjudgement all cluster together and yet again provide a reason for break up. Things could of been different if more rules and regulations were introduced from Ralph’s hierarchy, if rules and punishments were enforced more order probably would have been present within life in general, the behaviour represented from the big uns isn’t uncommon, there is a certain expectancy for some controversy and child play, in relation to the whole world boys on a daily basis will issue a sense of stubbornness. The absence of adults has led to a break up in communications and rather than everybody pulling together trying to formulate an escape plan a majority instead enjoy the whole experience and use the time to absorb freedom, this has been a disadvantage of the island scenario and again builds up to create another reason for the break up, piggy says, â€Å"no adults†, this shows that there is a realisation of absence, however in comparison to the current happenings in the world (within book) the adults suppress themselves just as bad, rather than been guiders they are destroyers after all they are fighting a war wiping out generations of people, so as the ‘war’ unfolds within the island environment as a mini scenario the adults who were respected as supreme change into beings ten times as worse fighting a large scale war, in context the adults or just as worse as the island inhabitants if not worse. Golding has created a perfect world within the island scenario, almost in comparison to Eden, with perfect tranquil surroundings and from the outset a smooth collection of objects to make life on the island so perfect, with provisions for eating and accommodation, consisting of different panoramic areas to suit the needs of different characters. Although life on the island was set up to be perfect, the attitudes exposed from the humans were in absolute differential comparison to the island, with obscene behaviour changing the surrounding area worsening as life carried by. The thought that the island inhabitants could have such an impact; showing total disrespect and selfishness for human nature, just as Golding had planned when he wrote the novel. When the humans arrived they participated in an act which is specific to human nature in general, at first things were fine just as in Eden, however as time advanced the destruction and disrespect followed, with an up rise in jealousy and rivalry, this being the result of freedom and sense of boredom. From this there is a strong link to the real world which proves against the actions from humans. As with the other strong meanings throughout the novel this joins to form a worrying concept, it shows that humans have no respect for nature and the surrounding environment, taking actions irrespective of the long term effects, the main theme therefore relates to selfishness and disregard. The three deaths on the island were drastic and devastating, with outcomes which were preventable. They were the result of rivalry jealousy and domination, all sharing the causes. The most significant death was that of Simon, his death was the result of carelessness and the obsession to kill. Ralph says, â€Å"that was murder†, piggy replies â€Å"what good are you doing talking like that?†, there is a mixture of emotions within the characters, some showing anger and retaliation with the others showing remorse and giving forgiveness for the opposition, from this a link between a happening and human nature can be established, showing that no matter how bad an action there will always be a sense of exoneration and mercy. The death of Simon was the most significant because of his characteristics, different, sensitive, wise and also introverted, this reflected through his personality consequently making him an outcast and excluding him from the others. His death was preventable, although blame cannot solely be burdened to jack as this shows selfishness and a sense of an easy route out of the scenario. The death of piggy was again preventable with the happenings being extreme and malicious. There was an urgency for jack to withhold power and authority, to the extent where protection and barricades had to be enforced. If power is so valuable and meaningful, why are outcomes of its effects so devastating? The death of piggy was the result of two people, jack and Roger, with jack indirectly offering his alternative to Ralph’s society, and roger directly carrying out the death, this shows in comparison to human nature that an event is not just the sole responsibility of a single human, instead there are indirect effects which link the action with other people. Power and authority made up to be a significant part of the break up, from the beginning of the novel there were early signs of conflict and rivalry, showing also jealousy and an urgency to withhold it. Ralph says, I’m chief!†, in comparison to jack who says, â€Å"Follow me, not him!†, this shows that there are leadership issues with jealousy being the main feeling from the oppositions point of view. Authority and power means respect and influence, allowing for somebody to rise above the rest and be noticed, in comparison to human nature some beings live from power and would be out of control without its presence. There are certain turning points within the novel and the necessity for power became much clearer, showing through characters actions and emotions. There were a number of beings throughout the novel who showed emotive actions seeking power, these included Jack, roger and piggy, all from the outset different in character although in some instances harsh and exploiting. From this there led to be a clear split between the group leaving the democratically elected chief with just a handful and the opposition with the majority. Power and authority can have devastating outcomes and results when used within the wrong context, consequently within the novel ending the life of an innocent opposition member, there are certain limits and extremes in which power should be used, this shows in comparison to human nature that power and authority should be respected and not misused as in some scenarios. The main and most revealing cause appeared to be that of the long and uprising rivalry between the two main characters Jack and Ralph, from the early encounters of island life an apparent clash of personalities was shown between the two members, starting from the initial meeting of the characters, up to the very latter stages of island life. There was a range of activities which uprooted a long and uprising feud, which was consequently going to lead to an all over split of the whole group. Ralph says, â€Å"I’ve been thinking†, in comparison to jack who says, â€Å"three blind mice†, this from the outset shows that Ralph from the beginning shows thought and respect for his fellow inhabitants, in contrast to jack who is more interested in criticising and himself, the two characters are of very different natures and consist of different mannerisms, in comparison to human nature this shows that every one is different and should be respected for their individually an d also for their own characteristics. Also in context the rivalry between two humans in a small scenario relates to rivalry within a big scale scenario for example jack Vs Ralph in comparison to contention between world leaders. Leadership was an important aspect of life for Jack and Ralph, this became clear when things started to go wrong and eventually leading to Jack taking over as the chief, the rivalry could be classed as a cause for the deaths with indirect effects. Golding used this idea of indirect killing and outcomes to create a suppressed atmosphere and to give the reader a much more enjoyable read. The differences between the wide range of characters personalities proved to be another cause, each individual offers different opinions and participates in different activities to each other, however there are some similarities amongst humans and this was shown through a simple means of mutual bonding, some characters naturally bond forming a strong relationship on the other hand some people do not bond and instead hold grudges and other similar feelings against each other. Jack says, â€Å"piggy!†, in context the comment seems harmless, just a remark expressing his surprise at the unusual name, however from between the lines there is more depth to the comment showing that he is horrified at his outset appearance, attitude and emotions, this simple comment led to hatred been displayed from a stronger character towards a much weaker one. A clash of personalities can consequently erupt to a much bigger scale, with more harmful and demoralizing effects. This shows that in relation to human nature, everybody is an individual with their own personal morals and emotions. In comparison to the world it shows that there will always be a group of people who’s personalities clash consequently leading to a much bigger dispute. The simple fact of boredom and isolation from the real world led to an up rise in misjudgement and unforeseen consequences which arose from actions which were that of an unformed decision. Within the island scenario there were a collection of beings that were under the influence of boredom and isolation, piggy says, â€Å"when are we going home?†, this question shows clear thought making it a valuable contribution, however there is another meaning to the statement, it shows boredom and also reflects that he and other island inhabitants are worrying about the return to normal civilisation, the separation from the real world allowed for signs of misjudgement and actions were taken from outside the beings conscious, this meant that emotions took control of their actions allowing for unusual activity, the worst outset scenario was the killing of Simon, in relation to human nature this shows that humans cannot always control their actions and instead undergo actions which are that of an unusual outcome. The title ‘lord of the flies’ suggests a leader of a small group, this shows that the title is meaningful and contains a link to the bigger world. Golding in comparison to other superior writers made his novel title significant, with a true meaning, Golding constantly throughout the novel tried to offer this image of a happening within a small environment links in context to a large scale meaning. The idea of a fly leader appears preposterous, but in relation to the real world the idea appears more explanatory, with clear motives and reasons, Golding was trying to portray an idea of a microcosm within the title also stating that all things must have a leader. The novel in general consists of many true and meaningful links between happenings within a small scale happening, in comparison to happenings within a large scale. Golding successfully transferred a wide range of human nature into a novel. The links within the island represent a small earth, technically called a microcosm, generally this shows that small things relate to big. The main reasons for the break up fall into certain themed categories; good Vs evil, authority Vs weakness, law Vs order and mentality Vs immaturity. Golding’s main strength shown in the novel is the use of irony showing how seemingly good events often lead to bad. There were a variety of reasons for the break up of Ralph’s society and they all have some meaning, Golding was a successful writer and his writing displays true significance with all of his wishes displayed clearly and thoughtfully.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Tuskegee Syphilis Study

Clinton Kopas Susan Gabriel English 102 December 1, 2011 The Goal of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Research studies are constantly being conducted in order to improve certain aspects of human life and knowledge. In many cases, these research studies involve human test subjects. One of the more famous studies involving human test subjects was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study that began in 1932. Most have heard of this study, few would ever claim that any good came of it.What had originally been a research study aimed at improving knowledge dealing with syphilis in the black male, turned into an extremely long and detrimental study that damaged hundreds of lives. Considering the damage that was done to the subjects and their families, it is easy to wonder if this study actually provided any real advances in medicine or medical knowledge. The origin of the study had good motives, being that it was to promote the health of blacks in the South. The U. S. Public Health Service collaborated with t he Julius Rosenwald Fund to conduct demonstration programs to control syphilis in southern counties.This failed due to funding issues, and the project had to be scrapped. However, the PHS was anxious â€Å"to salvage something of value from the project† (Thomas). So in 1932, a group of doctors recruited a total of 399 syphilis infected black men from Macon County, Alabama to participate in a study concerning the study of â€Å"bad blood†. The organizers took their initial idea and converted â€Å"the original treatment program into a nontherapeutic human experiment aimed at compiling data on the progression of the disease on untreated African-American males† (Herried; Fourtner; Fourtner).This study became formally known as the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male (Herried; Fourtner; Fourtner; Thomas). The formal name that was applied to this study may imply the true motives of the researchers behind it. The study was not necessarily meant to fi nd major breakthroughs in medicine, but to simply study the effects of untreated syphilis. The researchers attempted to justify what they were doing by saying it was going to be for a greater good, and that these men got more treatment than they would have gotten otherwise.This may be true in a sense, but the men in the study were still intentionally withheld from treatment once penicillin was known to cure syphilis. By 1948, penicillin was known to be the most and best effective cure for syphilis. The study went on for 22 more years even though a cure had been found. There is no point in attempting to learn anything more about an infection when a cure has been found. The only treatment that the infected men received was treatment involving arsenicals and heavy metals.This type of treatment was not nearly as effective and researchers knew it would not cure the men entirely, just keep them from being infectious (Reverby). It might not be going too far to even say that the researchers were conducting this experiment on the basis of pure curiosity. After all, there could not be much advancement made just studying the effects of syphilis in blacks compared to whites. Much about syphilis had already been known prior to the beginning of the Tuskegee Study. German scientists had already discovered most of what there is to know about syphilis over 20 years before the Tuskegee experiments had begun. The cause of syphilis, the stages of the diseases development, and the complications . . . . were all known to medical science in the early 1900’s† (Herried; Fourtner; Fourtner). It has been stated by many journalists and even some that were involved in the experiment, that nothing was gained from this long and drawn out experiment. All signs begin to point that it truly was an experiment based solely on curiosity. The black men that participated in the study were poor sharecroppers that would do and believe anything that the doctor told them. Most of these men had never even seen a doctor before in their lives.These men were promised free medical care for their bad blood, and drawn in by signs that claimed â€Å"last chance for treatment†. The doctors and scientists conducting the research had church leaders and other respected members of the community help to enlist people to participate in the study. The researchers even enlisted the help of a black nurse and admired her ability to help them gain the trust of the participants. If the researchers needed to lie to a group of people in order to conduct their experiment, these men would have been some of these easiest to fool (Infoplease; Thomas).The researchers that were involved in the Tuskegee Study are said to have been fairly liberal for the time and open to the education of blacks. However it seems that there was some sort of racist mind set involved in this scheme. The researchers seem to have had no regard to other human life and treated the men like lab rats. The researcher s even made sure that their goal would not be interrupted by others. They went to great lengths to make sure all medical professionals in the area participated in the study and gave orders not to give treatment to the men.The black men were even excluded from the draft during WWII to keep their research from being interrupted (Herried; Fourtner; Fourtner; Thomas) As the years went by, the study did not become less organized and forgotten. There were meetings held and new people were added to the project. The experiment was constantly reviewed throughout the years as the focus changed. Ethical issues were not brought up until halfway through the 1960’s, over 30 years after the experiment had begun. During the 1950’s, the focus turned to the aging of syphilis and the negative impact it had on the body.It was quite clear that syphilis caused great damage over time and would shorten the life span of the host. Even at this point in the study, when so many men had passed awa y and others had gone unaccounted for, the study continued. The researchers believed that the study had gone on for so long that the men were untreatable anyways, even with use of penicillin (Herried; Fourtner; Fourtner). To continue a research study like this and deny men treatment just on the basis of curiosity seems too unethical to be true. But all signs point to this especially when considering another research study that took place during the same time period.From 1946 to 1948, the American government performed research in Guatemala that involved intentionally infecting Guatemalan subjects with syphilis. The idea was to test the effectiveness of penicillin on different stages of syphilis. A very interesting detail is that a man by the name of Dr. John C. Cutler was involved not only in the Guatemalan study, but the Tuskegee study as well. It is strange that although Dr. Cutler was involved in both experiments, he did not choose to test the effectiveness of penicillin on the me n who were already infected with syphilis in the Tuskegee Study.Instead, he and his colleagues chose to allow syphilis infected prostitutes to sleep with Guatemalan prisoners. This truly shows the ethical value that the researchers held and what their true motives were (Villaroasa). Dr. Cutler and the other men involved in the Tuskegee research had no interest in any kind of advancement with the prevention of syphilis. A kind of bureaucracy was formed that helped fuel this unethical study. Men who were involved in the Tuskegee study would be promoted to surgeon general of the U. S. Public Health Service. Dr.Cutler even obtained the position of assistant surgeon general in the PHS. Dr. Cutler defended the integrity of the study up until his death (Thomas; Villarosa) It is hard to imagine that an idea that began with such good intentions could have turned into the catastrophe that was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The men who conducted this study seemed to have been fueled by a strange curiosity that they masked with the idea of medical advancement. It is clear that the researchers did not view people with darker skin colors as equal, as they treated them like lab animals.It is evident and even admitted by some involved in the study that there were no advances in medicine because of the study. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male only came to a close because of a national press release in 1972. By this time, over 370 men that had been used for research were either dead or believed to be dead. If the researchers had any true notion to help them, that number would have been much smaller. Not only had this study affected the men directly involved in it; it affected the men’s wives and their children as well.There is no questioning the goal of the experiment being to see what would happen to someone if syphilis was left untreated. The doctors could have only continued this experiment based off of some strange curiosity. It is possible tha t some of them may have believed what they were doing was for the better, but that is hard to imagine. Nothing was gained from the experiments in the Tuskegee Study. The only possible advancement would be the understanding of ethics for future research. Works Cited Fourtner, A. W. , C. R. Fourtner, and C. F. Herreid. â€Å"†Bad Blood†: A Case Study of the Tuskegee Syphilis Project. Philosophy. tamucc. edu. Texas A&M University. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. Reverby, Susan M. â€Å"Listening to Narratives from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. † Lancet 377. 977B (2011): 1646-647. TheLancet. com – Home Page. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. Thomas, Stephen B. â€Å"The Legacy of Tuskegee. † Thebody. com. HealthCentral Network, Jan. -Feb. 2000. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. â€Å"The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. † Infoplease. com. Pearson Education, 2007. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. Villarosa, Linda. â€Å"The Guatemala Syphilis Experiment's Tuskegee Roots. † Theroot. com. The Slate Gro up, 02 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Cultural Relativism Definition and Examples

Cultural Relativism Definition and Examples Cultural relativism refers to the idea that the values, knowledge, and behavior of people must be understood within their own cultural context. This is one of the most fundamental concepts in sociology, as it recognizes and affirms the connections between the greater social structure and trends and the everyday lives of individual people. Origins and Overview The concept of cultural relativism as we know and use it today was established as an analytic tool by German-American  anthropologist Franz Boas in the early 20th century. In the context of early social science, cultural relativism became an important tool for pushing back on the ethnocentrism that often tarnished research at that time, which was mostly conducted by white, wealthy, Western men, and often focused on people of color, foreign indigenous populations, and persons of lower economic class than the researcher. Ethnocentrism is the practice of viewing and judging someone elses culture based on the values and beliefs of ones own. From this standpoint, we might frame other cultures as weird, exotic, intriguing, and even as problems to be solved. In contrast, when we recognize that the many cultures of the world have their own beliefs, values, and practices that have developed in particular historical, political, social, material, and ecological contexts  and that it makes sense that they would differ from our own and that none are necessarily right or wrong or good or bad, then we are engaging the concept of cultural relativism. Examples Cultural relativism explains why, for example, what constitutes breakfast varies widely from place to place. What is considered a typical breakfast in Turkey, as illustrated in the above image, is quite different from what is considered a typical breakfast in the U.S. or Japan. While it might seem strange to eat fish soup or stewed vegetables for breakfast in the U.S., in other places, this is perfectly normal. Conversely, our tendency toward sugary cereals and milk  or preference for egg sandwiches loaded with bacon and cheese would seem quite bizarre to other cultures. Similarly, but perhaps of more consequence, rules that regulate nudity in public vary widely around the world. In the U.S., we tend to frame nudity in general as an inherently sexual thing, and so when people are nude in public, people may interpret this as a sexual signal. But in many other places around the world, being nude or partially nude in public is a normal part of life, be it at swimming pools, beaches, in parks, or even throughout the course of daily life (see many indigenous cultures around the world). In these cases, being nude or partially nude is not framed as sexual but as the appropriate bodily state for engaging in a given activity. In other cases, like many cultures where Islam is the predominant faith, a more thorough coverage of the body is expected than in other cultures. Due in large part to ethnocentrism, this has become a highly politicized and volatile practice in todays world. Why Recognizing Cultural Relativism Matters By acknowledging  cultural relativism, we can recognize that our culture shapes what we consider to be beautiful, ugly, appealing, disgusting, virtuous, funny, and abhorrent. It shapes what we consider to be good and bad art, music, and film, as well as  what we consider to be tasteful or tacky consumer goods. The work of sociologist Pierre Bourdieu features ample discussion of these phenomena, and the consequences of them. This varies not just in terms of national cultures but within a large society like the U.S. and also by cultures and subcultures organized by class, race, sexuality, region, religion, and ethnicity, among others.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Verbs to Use in Your Research Paper

Verbs to Use in Your Research Paper When you conduct a research project, one part of your job is to assert your own original thesis with an effective argument. There are a few ways to enhance your research paper so it sounds more impressive. One method to sound convincing as an authority is to elevate your vocabulary by using great verbs. Remember, verbs are action words. The verbs you select for your writing should represent a specific action. This means you should avoid generic verbs like the following to keep your writing interesting and sharp. Dont bore your teacher or audience to tears! Stale and boring verbs to avoid: See  Is/wasLookedDidGo/wentSaidTurned Be the Authority No matter what your grade level, you must do your best to come across as an authority on your topic.  Think about the noticeable difference in these statements: I saw more mold on one piece of bread.I observed a distinct difference between the two pieces of bread. Most importantly, one piece of bread displayed a greater density of mold. The second statement sounds more mature, because we replaced saw with observed and had with displayed. In fact, the verb observe is more accurate. When carrying out a scientific experiment, after all, you use more than mere eyesight to scrutinize your results. You may smell, hear, or feel some results, and those are all part of observing. Now consider these statements when writing a history essay: Historian Robert Dulvany says there were three main causes for the war.Historian Robert Dulvany asserted that three events prompted the war. The second phrase just sounds more authoritative and direct. The verbs make all the difference! Also, make sure to use active rather than passive structure with your verbs. Active verbs make your writing clearer and engaging. Review these statements: The war on terror was launched by the United States.The United States launched the war on terror.   The subject-verb construction is a more active and powerful statement. How to Sound Like an Authority Each discipline (like history, science  or literature) has a distinct tone with certain verbs that appear frequently. As you read over your sources, observe the tone and language.   While reviewing the first draft of your research paper, conduct an inventory of your verbs. Are they tired and weak or strong and effective? This list of verbs may provide suggestions to make your research paper sound more authoritative. affirm ascertain assert cite claim clarify communicate concur contribute convey debate defend define detail determine develop differ discover discuss dispute dissect document elaborate emphasize employ engage enhance establish estimate evaluate examine explore express find focus highlight hold hypothesize identify illuminate illustrate imply incorporate infer inquire invest investigate involve judge justify limn observe ponder predict proclaim proffer promote provide question realize recap reconcile refer reflect regard relate relay remark report resolve respond reveal review sanction seek show simplify speculate submit support surmise survey tangle test theorize total transpose underestimate underline underscore understand undertake undervalue usurp validate value verify vex wander

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Fair Value Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fair Value Accounting - Essay Example (Parshall, 2009) This study is set out to discuss fair value accounting and more specifically determine its role in the credit crisis that rocked the world in 2008. It will try to justify the statement that, â€Å"Fair value accounting only works in efficient, active and liquid markets. In order to produce information which is relevant and reliable, fair value focuses on market prices.† Due to the financial crisis, fair-value approach for accounting has triggered major debates globally. Among the debaters are the European Commission, USA Congress as well as accounting and banking regulators in the globe. Cynics have it that the financial crisis impacting the whole world in the recent past has been mostly caused by the effects of fair-value accounting. The study is going to determine whether fair value accounting is only applicable in active, efficient and liquid markets. Various arguments will be considered while trying to draw the befitting approach to the issue. The Standards of accounting reports, IFRS and US GAAP, aid in deriving from market prices in various circumstances. However, it is not very clear whether these standards are the origin of the predicaments. The allowing of the managements of organisations to be flexible when it comes to dealing with future value accounting problems leads to the manipulation during such times as those of financial crisis. From the perspective thus the market conditions may impact on fair value accounting. However, according to Laux and Leuz, future value accounting is an approach to the measurement of liabilities and assets in a given company’s balance sheet. FAS’s number 157 definition is that fair value accounting is â€Å"the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.† Under IFRS fair value has been defined as the sum at which a certain asset and liability could be

Friday, November 1, 2019

Phonetics and you can find every thing in the slide Essay

Phonetics and you can find every thing in the slide - Essay Example 2a) Within the dataset provided there is only evidence of one minimal pair: [kano] â€Å"to make† and [xano] â€Å"to lose† providing evidence of /k/ and /x/ being phonemes because they are contrastive and therefore distinctive. It is unlikely that a language will have only one stop consonant (plosive) so it can be assumed that /t/ and /p/ are also phonemes. The fact that there is evidence of both a voiced /?/and voiceless /x/ velar fricative occurring in the same environments anticipates they are phonemes, and that a voiced counterpart to the labio-dental /f/ and alveolar fricative /s/ would also be found with further data. Evidence also suggests that although the voiced and voiceless pairs of velar fricative phonemes exist they are not found in all situations; for example, /x/ and /?/ occur directly before the back mid vowel /o/ and the low vowel /a/ but not before the high /i/ and mid /e/front vowels and are thus in complementary distribution, wherein we find a voice less alveolar fricative [?] or its voiced counterpart [?]. ... /n/ only occurs between vowels, but because of symmetry it is more likely they both occur as phonemes – within this same argument there may be a velar nasal /?/. Another allophone evidenced in the data is the alveolar trill [r] which is only found inter-vocalically preceding two vowels - in other words a diphthong. It can thus be assumed that the flap or tap /?/ becomes a trill [r] before a diphthong. The difficulty in terms of interpretation in this data set is whether the post alveolar affricate [t?] is a phoneme or an allophone; for want of further evidence and because both the voiced and voiceless post alveolar fricatives occur in the same environment as the post alveolar affricate it is suggested that it is an allophone of /k/ in keeping with the symmetrical pattern of each velar phoneme having allophones preceding front vowels. The only other phoneme not discussed within the list is the back high vowel /u/, which if considered a phoneme provides a five vowel system for C retan. 2b) The following rules would account for the presumed four allophones: /x/ [?] / -- /i/ and /e/ /?/ [?] / -- /i/ and /e/ /k/ [t?] / -- /i/ and /e/ /?/ [r]/ -- /i/ or /e/ 2c) Based on the dataset it is likely that [g] does not exist in Cretan because there is no evidence of any voiced stops; thus it can be assumed that Cretan only has voiceless stops. References Silzer, P.J. 2005, Working with Language: an interactive guide to understanding language and linguistics. SIL at Biola, Department of TESOL and Applied Linguistics, School of Intercultural Studies, Biola University, viewed 14 January, 201,